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Sources for Evolution and Creation
James R. Hofmann
of Liberal Studies
State University Fullerton
email@example.com H223-E 657-278-7049
[Additional PHIL/LBST 333 course materials are available to currently enrolled students via CSUF TITANiam.]
Table of Contents
2. General References on the Relationship of Religion and Theology to Science
3. General References for Philosophy of Science
5. General References for Evolutionary Theory
6. Evolution as Fact and Theory
7. Introduction to Evolutionary Theory
8. Natural Selection
8.1 Natural Selection and Speciation
8.2 Darwin's Finches
8.3 Peppered Moths
8.4 Colin Patterson
9. Genetics and Mutation
9.5 HOX Genes
10. The Fossil Record
10.1 General References on Fossils
10.2 The Vertebrate Sequence
10.3 Reptiles to Birds: Archaeopteryx and Longisquama
10.4 Fish to Amphibian
10.5 Dinosaur Fossils
10.6 Polystrate Fossils
10.7 Whale Fossils
11. Punctuated Equilibrium
11.11 The Cambrian Explosion
12. Anatomy and Physiology
12.1 The Giant Panda
12.2. The human eye
12.3 Vestigial Organs
13. Molecular Evidence
14. Evolutionary Developmental Biology
14.2. Ernst Haeckel
15. Biochemical Complexity
15.5 Michael Behe
17. Origin of Life, Information and Complexity
18. Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Dawkins
19. Legal and Educational Issues
20. Intelligent Design
20.6 Jonathan Wells
20.7 William Dembski
21. General References for Geology and Radiometric Dating
22. General References for Young Earth Creationism
23. Young Earth Creationist Arguments for a Young Earth
24. Young Earth Creationist Arguments for the Coexistence of Humans and Dinosaurs
25. The Noachian Flood
26. Progressive (Old Earth) Creationism
27. Theistic Evolution
27.2 Other Theistic Evolutionists
30. Human Evolution
31. Evolution and Creation in the Popular Press
1a. Some useful blogs and news groups for discussion of evolution and creation
Click Here for Talk.origins,
Click Here for the talk.origins discussion forum.
Click Here for TrueOrigin, a creationist response to Talk.origins.
Click Here for The Panda's Thumb
Click Here for Pharyngula by P.Z. Myers.
Click Here for The Loom by Carl Zimmer.
Click Here for The Austringer, The Weblog of Wesley R. Elsberry.
Click Here for The Sandwalk by Larry Moran.
Click Here for The Questionable Authority by Mike Dunford.
Click Here for Science, AntiScience, and Geology, by Joe Meert.
Click Here for Uncommon Descent, Serving the The Intelligent Design Community.
Click Here for Index to Creationist Claims edited by Mark Isaak.
Click Here for Alec's Evolution Pages by Alec MacAndrew.
Click Here for The Lancelet by Martin Brazeau.
Click Here for Playing Chess with Pigeons by Troy Britain.
Click Here for Genomicron by T Ryan Gregory.
Click Here for Quintessence of Dust by Stephen Matheson.
Click Here for Rationally Speaking by Massimo Pigliucci.
Click Here for Talk Rational, an evolution and origins blog.
Click Here for Ediacaran by Chris Nedin.
Click Here for the blog of Todd Wood.
Click Here for the blog of John Hawks: paleoanthropology, genetics, and evolution.
Click Here for Telic Thoughts, an independent blog about intelligent design.
Click Here for the RNA Underworld by Arthur Hunt.
Click Here for the Design Matrix by Mike Gene.
Click Here for Answers in Genesis Busted.
Click Here for ASA Voices.
Click Here for Recursivity by Jeffrey Shallit.
Click Here for Evolution for Everyone: David Sloan Wilson.
Click Here for The Dispersal of Darwin.
Click Here for The Biologos Forum: Science and Faith in Dialogue
Click Here for Questioning Answers In Genesis, by The Colossian Forum
Some texts and authors that have sometimes been used for PHIL/LBST 333:
1.1 Darwin on Trial, by Phillip Johnson
1.1a Click Here for Johnson's home page.
1.1b Click here for links to most of Johnson's publications compiled by Stephen Jones.
1.1c Click Here for a 1999 intervew hosted by Communique.
1.1d Click Here for a video study guide to a debate between Johnson and William Provine provided by the Access Research Network.
1.1e Click Here for Johnson's 1989 "Position Paper on Darwinism".
1.2 Finding Darwin's God: A Scientist's Search for Common Ground Between God and Evolution, by
1.2a Click Here for Miller's home page.
1.2b Click Here for "The Evolution of Ken Miller".
1.2c Click Here for Miller's article, "Life's Grand Design".
1.2d Click Here for Miller's 2000 keynote address in Kansas, "Finding Darwin's God: The New Battle over Evolution".
1.2e Click Here for "Finding Darwin's God", adapted from Miller's book.
1.2f Click Here for a December 2004 interview.
1.2g Click Here for information about Miller's 2008 book, Only a Theory: Evolution and the Battle for America's Soul.
1.3 Science on Trial: The Case for Evolution, by Douglas Futuyma
Click Here for Futuyma's "Hypotheses, Facts, and the Nature of Science".
1.4 Refuting Evolution & Refuting Evolution2 by Jonathan Sarfati Click Here for the PBS series on Evolution and
Click Here for a 2002 Scientific American article by John Rennie. Sarfati's book is a response to this production and article.
1.4a Click Here for Sarfati's homepage and links to many of his publications.
1.4b Click Here for Chapter 4 of Refuting Evolution: "Bird Evolution?".
1.4c Click Here for discussion of Sarfati's concept of "kinds" by David Thomas.
1.4d Click Here for "Rejoinder to Sarfati and Humphreys's Responses" by Perry G. Phillips of the Interdisciplinary Biblical Research Institute.
1.5 Click Here for information on Evolution vs. Creationism: An Introduction by Eugenie C. Scott. She is the director of the National Center for Science Education.
1.5a Click Here for a review by John Burgeson.
Here for an overview developed by the Ontario Consultants on
Religious Tolerance: "The Theory of Evolution and Creation Science".
1.7 Click Here for the American Scientific Affiliation Commission on Creation.
1.8 Click Here for "Who Believes What? Clearing up Confusion over Intelligent Design and Young-Earth Creationism", by Marcus R. Ross.
Here for The American Scientific Affiliation. The Affiliation
is described as "a fellowship of men and women of science and
that relate to science who share a common fidelity to the Word of God and a commitment to integrity in the practice of science."
Click Here for the ASA Creation/Evolution Page.
2.2 Click here for "Truth and Religion Reconsidered: An Analytic Approach", by Andrzej Bronk.
2.3 Click Here for "The Relation of Science, Factual Statements and the Doctrine of Biblical Inerrancy", by Bernard Ramm, former Professor of Christian
Theology at the American Baptist Seminary of the West.
2.4 Click Here for "Can Science Prove that God Does Not Exist?" by Theodore Schick, Jr.
2.5 Click Here for "Has Science Found God?" by Victor J. Stenger.
2.6 Click Here for "Rational Methodology for Identifying Supernatural Power and Purpose" by Steve Hinrichs .
Here for a course developed by Deborah and Loren Haarsma: "Science
and Spirituality: Is Harmony Possible?"
2.7a Click Here for "Are Science and Religion at War?".
2.7b Click Here for "Is the Creator Infinitely Lazy?".
2.7c Click Here for "If Science is Right, is Genesis Wrong?".
2.7d Click Here for "Can Creation and Evolution Both be Right?".
2.7e Click Here for "If Evolution is Messy, can Creation be Good?".
2.7f Click Here for additional resources related to the Haarsmas' book, Origins: A Reformed Look at Creation, Design, & Evolution.
Here for "Beyond War and Peace: A Reappraisal of the Encounter
between Christianity and Science", David Lindberg and Ronald Numbers.
2.9 Click Here for "Bishop Barnes, Science and Religion" by Steve Bishop.
2.10 Click Here for "Important Primary Texts on Religion and Science in America" by Edward B. Davis .
2.11 Click Here for Myths, Models and Paradigms: A Comparative Study in Science and Religion by Ian Barbour (1976).
2.12 Click Here for "An Open Letter Concerning Religion and Science", distributed by the "Clergy Letter Project".
2.13 Click Here for "Understanding American Evangelicals", a lecture by Mark Noll, Francis A. McAnaney Professor of History, Notre Dame University.
2.14 Click Here for some sample articles from Science and Christian Belief.
2.15 Click Here for "Science, Religion, and the Teaching of Evolution in Public School Science Classes", issued by the National Council of Churches
Committee on Public Education and Literacy.
2.16 Click Here for the Nebraska Religious Coalition for Science Education (NRCSE).
2.17 Click Here for Counterbalance: New Views on Complex Issues.
2.18 Click Here for "An Evangelical Manifesto: A Declaration of Evangelical Identity and Public Commitment"; 7 May, 2008 by the Evangelical Manifesto Steering Committee.
3.1a Click Here for excerpts from "Science as Falsification" by Karl Popper.
3.1b For some comments on Johnson's references to Karl Popper, click here to see a review of Darwin on Trial by Gert Korthof.
3.1c Click Here for a discussion of Popper's demarcation criterion, "The Separation of Science From Non-Science and Pseudo-Science and the
General Problem of Rationality and Openness to Argument: A Critical Exposition" by Ray Scott Percival.
3.1d Click Here for essays on Popper by Rafe Champion.
3.1e Click Here for Rafe Champion's condensed version of The Open Society and Its Enemies.
3.2 Thomas Kuhn
3.2a Click Here for a short discussion of Thomas Kuhn by Frank Pajares of Emory University.
3.2b Click Here for an outline of Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions composed by Frank Pajares.
Click Here for a short synopsis of this outline.
3.2c Click Here for "Thomas Kuhn: Paradigms Die Hard" by Imran Javaid.
3.2d Click Here for "Popper and Kuhn on the Evolution of Science" by Pat Duffy Hutcheon.
Here for "Evolution and Philosophy - An Introduction" by
3.7 Click Here for "Methodological Naturalism?" by Alvin Plantinga.
3.8 Click Here for "Methodological Naturalism ? Part 2" by Alvin Plantinga
3.9 Click Here for "Naturalism is an Essential Part of Science and Critical Inquiry", by Steven D. Schafersman.
3.10 Click Here for "Science as Successful Prediction" by Imre Lakatos.
3.11 Click Here for "Methodological Naturalism and Philosophical Naturalism: Clarifying the Connection", by Barbara Forrest, author of Creationism's Trojan Horse.
3.12 Click Here for "How Not to Attack Intelligent Design Creationism: Philosophical Misconceptions About Methodological Naturalism", by Maarten Boudry, Stefaan Blancke and Johan Braeckman.
4. GENESIS4.1. TRANSLATIONS OF GENESIS
4.3 "The Fundamentals" and "Fundamentalism"
4.3a See Jerry Bergman's A Brief History of the Modern American Creation Movement .
4.3b Although the term "fundamentalism" is used in a variety of manners today, the term has its origin in a series of pamphlets entitled The Fundamentals: A Testimony to the Truth and published between 1910 and 1915.
Especially relevant for the discussion of evolution and creation are the following two essays from The Fundamentals:
4.3c Professor George Frederick Wright, DD, LLD: The Mosaic Authorship of the Pentateuch
4.3d Rev. Dyson Hague, M.A.: The Doctrinal Value of the First Chapters of Genesis
4.3e Click Here for "Understanding American Evangelicals", a lecture by Mark Noll, Francis A. McAnaney Professor of History, Notre Dame University.
4.3f Click Here for "Evangelicals, Creation, and Scripture: an Overview", by Mark Noll.
4.4 Biblical Literalism
4.4a Click Here for "The Bible Is a Textbook of Science", a position statement by Henry Morris of the Institute for Creation Research.
4.4b Click Here for "The Days Of Creation", a Special Committee Report of the Reformed Church in the United States, adopted by the 253rd Synod May 17-20, 1999.
4.4c Click Here for the 2000 Report of the Creation Study Committee by the Presbyterian Church in America .
4.4d Click Here for "Biblical Literalism: Constricting the Cosmic Dance", by Conrad Hyers.
4.4e Click Here for the Westminster Theological Seminary and the Days of Creation.
4.4f Click Here for "The Meaning of the Chronogenealogies of Genesis 5 and 11", by Gerhard F. Hasel.
4.4g Click Here for "The non-moving Earth & anti-evolution web page of The Fair Education Foundation, Inc" (Marshall Hall)
4.5 Death and Sin in Genesis
4.5a Click Here for "Death Before Sin?", an Institute for Creation Research essay that interprets Genesis to say that death began only after the sin of Adam and Eve.
4.5b Click Here for "Theological Analysis of Selected Recent Creationist Assertions Concerning the Occurrence of Death before Sin", by Gary Emberger.
4.5c Click Here for "Disease and Dying in the Fossil Record: Implications for Christian Theology" by Clarence Menninga.
4.5d Click Here for "Creature Mortality: From Creation or the Fall?", by John Munday.
4.5e Click Here for "A young Earth - it's not the issue!", by Ken Ham.
4.5f Click Here for "Why Does God’s Creation Include Death & Suffering?", by Tommy Mitchell for Answers in Genesis.
4.5g Click Here for "Two histories of death", by Ken Ham.
4.5h Click Here for "Animal Death before Human Sin ...does the Bible really teach that there was no animal death before human sin?", by Craig Rusbult.
4.5i Click Here for "Death before Sin", a collection of sources compiled by Answers in Creation.
4.5j Click Here for Genesis 2:17—“you shall surely die”, by Dr. Terry Mortenson for Answers in Genesis.
4.5k Click Here for "Genesis 2:17 - Death Before Sin" by Greg Neyman.
4.5L Click Here for "Evolution, Sin, and Death" by George Murphy.
4.5m Click Here for "The Pope on the Big Bang" by Ken Ham.
4.5n Click Here for "Understanding Genesis and the Fall" by Denis Alexander.
4.5O Click Here for "No Death Before the Fall - A Young Earth Problem" by Rich Deem for GodandScience.org
4.5p Click Here for "Why is there Death and Suffering?" by Ken Ham.
5.1a Click Here for an electronic version of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, with a search option.
5.1b Click Here for an electronic version of Darwin's 1871 Descent of Man.
5.1c Click Here The Complete Works of Charles Darwin Online.
5.1d Click Here for "Evolution and Wonder: Understanding Charles Darwin".
5.1e Click Here for the Darwin Correspondence Project.
Here for a website dedicated to Alfred Russell Wallace.
5.3 Click Here for a website dedicated to Thomas H. Huxley.
5.4 Click Here for the contents for the journal Evolution.
5.5 To look at
the present reconstruction of the
history of life, see The Tree of Life .
5.6 Center for the Study of Evolution and the Origin of Life at UCLA.
5.7 SEE: Semiosis, Evolution, Energy - a virtual research project exploring the transformation of energy within evolutionary semiotic or codal organization.
5.8 Click Here for the American Association for the Advancement of Science Evolution Resources site.
5.9 Click Here for Understanding Evolution: An Evolution website for Teachers.
5.10 Click Here for the Society for the Study of Evolution.
5.11 Click Here for Educational Resources developed by the Evolution and the Nature of Science Institutes.
6. Evolution as Fact and Theory
Click Here for Stephen J. Gould,
"Evolution as Fact and Theory", May 1981.
6.1a Click Here for an abridged version.
6.2 Click Here for "Data, Theory, and Evolutionary Phenomena", by Jim Hofmann.
"Well evolution is a theory. It is also a fact. And facts and theories are different things, not rungs in a hierarchy of increasing certainty. Facts are the world's data. Theories are structures of ideas that explain and interpret facts. Facts don't go away when scientists debate rival theories to explain them. Einstein's theory of gravitation replaced Newton's in this century, but apples didn't suspend themselves in mid-air, pending the outcome. And humans evolved from ape-like ancestors whether they did so by Darwin's proposed mechanism or by some other yet to be discovered.
Moreover, "fact" doesn't mean "absolute certainty"; there ain't no such animal in an exciting and complex world. The final proofs of logic and mathematics flow deductively from stated premises and achieve certainty only because they are NOT about the empirical world. Evolutionists make no claim for perpetual truth, though creationists often do (and then attack us falsely for a style of argument that they themselves favour). In science 'fact' can only mean 'confirmed to such a degree that it would be perverse to withhold provisional consent'. I suppose that apples might start to rise tomorrow, but the possibility does not merit equal time in physics classrooms.
Evolutionists have been very clear about this distinction of fact and theory from the very beginning, if only because we have always acknowledged how far we are from completely understanding the mechanisms (theory) by which evolution (fact) occurred. Darwin continually emphasized the difference between his two great and separate accomplishments: establishing the fact of evolution, and proposing a theory - natural selection - to explain the mechanism of evolution."
7.1 For a survey
article by a famous evolutionary theorist, Stephen Jay Gould, see
Evolution of Life on Earth .
7.2 Click Here for "Understanding Evolution".
7.3 Click Here for the PBS series on Evolution.
7.4 Click Here for Educational Resources developed by the Evolution and the Nature of Science Institutes.
7.5 Click Here for the Darwin Correspondence Project.
Click Here for some sample definitions of natural selection.8. NATURAL SELECTION
Natural Selection and Speciation
8.1a Speciation via Natural Selection
8.1b Some More Speciation via Natural Selection
8.1c Click Here for "Nonrandom mating in drosophila melanogaster laboratory populations derived from closely adjacent ecologically contrasting slopes at Evolution Canyon by Abraham Korol et al.
8.1d Click Here for "Natural selection and speciation" by Christopher Schneider.
8.1e Click Here for "An Interventionist Theory of Natural Selection and Biological Change within Limits" by Leonard Brand and L. James Gibson.
8.1f Click Here for a young-earth creationist analysis of "kinds": "Baraminology - Classification of Created Organisms", by Wayne Frair; archived from the CRS Quarterly by the Creation Research Society .
8.1g Click Here for "How the Horned Lizard Got Its Horns", by K.V. Young, E.D. Brodie Jr., and E.D. Brodie III. Click Here for additional material.
8.2a For an application of a young-earth creationist perspective on the biological concept of species to Darwin's finches see Kenneth Cumming's article
Reticulate Evolution . Phillip Johnson discusses this case on page 25 of Darwin on Trial.
8.2b Click Here for "Darwin's Finches: Evidence supporting rapid post-Flood adaptation", by Carl Wieland of Answers in Genesis.
8.2c Click Here for "Phylogeny of Darwin's finches as revealed by mtDNA sequences" by Akie Sato, Colm O'hUigin, Felipe Figueroa, Peter R. Grant, B. Rosemary
Grant, Herbert Tichy, and Jan Klein.
8.2d Click Here for "Genetics and the origin of bird species" by Peter R. Grant and B. Rosemary Grant.
8.2e Click Here for the Galapagos finch page of Robert Rothman .
An interesting case of the role of natural selection in evolutionary change is provided by melanism in peppered moths. Johnson mentions this case on pages 26 and 176-177 of Darwin on Trial.
8.3a Click Here for a summary by Bruce Grant, "Fine Tuning the Peppered Moth Paradigm".
8.3aa Click Here for Bruce Grant's home page and a link to his review of Judith Hooper's Of Moths and Men.
8.3c Click Here For "Second Thoughts about Peppered Moths", by Jonathan Wells.
Click Here for other articles on evolution by Wells, and Click Here for other articles by Wells.
8.3d Click Here for a review of Wells' book, Icons of Evolution, by David Ussery. Click Here for analysis by Massimo Pigliucci.
Click Here for "Icon of Obfuscation: Jonathan Wells's book Icons of Evolution and why most of what it teaches about evolution is wrong", by Nick Matzke.
Click Here for a critique of Wells by Alan Gishlick for the National Center of Science Education.
8.3e Click Here for Kenneth Miller's comments on peppered moths.
8.3f Click Here for "Moonshine: Why the Peppered Moth Remains An Icon of Evolution", by Matt Young.
8.3g Click Here for the home page of Michael Majerus, which includes links to his lecture "The Peppered Moth: The Proof of Darwinian Evolution", given at the ESAB meeting in Uppsala on 23
August, 2007 and his "Peppered Moth: Decline of a Darwinian Disciple", delivered to the British Humanist Society on 12 February 2004.
8.4a On page 10 of Darwin on Trial, Johnson cites an oft-quoted statement by Colin Patterson. Click Here for correspondence from Patterson concerning this passage in a report by Lionel Theunissen.
8.4b Click Here for an alternative account by Paul Nelson.
8.4c Click Here for a 1981 speech by Patterson transcribed by Stephen Jones.
8.5 Click here for information on the Coelacanth, one of the most famous of the "living fossils" discussed by Johnson on page 29.
Click Here for information on natural selection in garter snakes that eat
Click Here for "The evolutionary origins of beneficial alleles during the repeated adaptation of garter snakes to deadly prey", by Chris R. Feldman, Edmund D. Brodie, Jr, Edmund D. Brodie III and Michael E. Pfrendera .
Here for DNA From The Beginning: an animated primer on
the basics of DNA, genes and heredity.
9.1a Click Here for a review of DNA structure and protein synthesis.
9.1b Click Here for a summary of various types of mutation.
9.1c Click Here for a summary of an interesting experiment by Joshua Lederberg. This is an example of a bacteria mutation that resulted in
adaptive change in a specific environment.
9.2 Click here for a discussion of the distinction between genetic "microevolution" and larger scale "macroevolution".
Debate over the role of random mutations
in adaptive change.
9.3a Click Here for "The Evolution of Improved Fitness by random mutation plus selection" by Edward Max. This includes a link to correspondence
with a critic, Lee Spetner.
9.3b Click Here for Spetner's update of his critique: "A Scientific Critique of Evolution".
9.3c Click Here for "Spetner and Biological Information" by Ian Musgrave.
9.3d Click Here for "Evolutionary Increases in Information" by Wesley Elsberry.
9.3e Click Here for a report on the role of chance in the history of amino acid sequences.
9.3f Click Here for "Evolution and Information: The Nylon Bug", by Dave Thomas.
9.3fa Click Here for further discussion of this case.
9.3g Click Here for "Evolution of Biological Information" by Tom Schneider.
9.3h Click Here for "Examples of Beneficial Mutations and Natural Selection" by Robert Williams.
9.3i Click Here for a discussion of "delta 32", a mutation studied by Stephen O'Brien.
9.3j Click Here for an article by O'Brien on the relevance of "delta 32" to research on HIV and AIDS.
9.3k Click Here for "Apolipoprotein AI Mutations and Information" by Ian Musgrave and Steven Pirie-Shepherd.
9.3L Click Here for "Information Theory and Creationism", by Ian Musgrave, Rich Baldwin, and others.
9.3m Click Here for the abstract of "Myosin gene mutation correlates with anatomical changes in human lineage" (2004)
9.3ma Click here for more information on myosin.
9.3mb Click Here for pdf files (2004).
9.3mc Click Here for a lecture by Hansell Stedman.
9.3md Click Here for "Of muscle-bound crania and human brain evolution: The story behind the MYH16 headlines", 2006, by Melanie A. McCollum, Chet C. Sherwood, Christopher J. Vinyard,
C. Owen Lovejoy, Fred Schachat.
9.3n Click Here for "Evolution and Chance" by John Wilkins and Chance from a Theistic Perspective by Loren Haarsma.
9.3O Click Here for "Evolution by Accident" by Laurence A. Moran.
9.3p Click Here for "Are Mutations Harmful?"
9.3q Click Here for "Examples of Beneficial Mutations in Humans ".
9.3r Click Here for discussion of the origins of the SETMAR gene.
9.4 Mutation and the Evolution
9.4a On a computer simulation of the evolution of vision, see Richard Dawkins' Where d'you get those peepers .
9.4b For a controversial genetic argument that the eye has only evolved once, see Eye-opening Gene by John Travis.
HOX GENES AND OTHER REGULATORY GENES
9.5d Click Here for "Establishment of Spatial Patterns of Gene Expression During Early Vertebrate Development: Hox Genes" by Derrick Rancourt.
9.5e Click Here for "Interpreting the Homeobox: Metaphors of Gene Action and Activation in Development and Evolution" by Jason Scot Robert
9.5f Click Here for "Hox (homeobox) Genes - Evolution's Saviour?" by Don Batten of Answers in Genesis.
9.5g Click Here for "It's not just the genes, it's the links between them", by P.Z. Myers.
9.5h Click Here for "Natural Genetic Engineering -- the Toolbox for Evolution: Prokaryotes", by Dr. Jim Shapiro.
9.6 Technical Articles
9.6a Click here or Click Here for an interesting experiment by Joshua Lederberg discussed by Futuyma on page 137 of Science on Trial. This is an example of a bacteria mutation that was adaptive in a specific environment. Click Here for a summary of this experiment.
9.6b Click Here for "Evolution of an Escherichia coli Protein with Increased Resistance to Oxidative Stress" by E.C.C. Lin et al. This case is discussed
by Miller on pages 105-107 of Finding Darwin's God.
9.6c Click Here for a collection of articles on horizontal gene transfer by Michael Syvanen.
9.6d Click Here for "Algorithms for computing parsimonious evolutionary scenarios for genome evolution, the last universal common ancestor and
dominance of horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of prokaryotes" by Boris G. Mirkin et al.
9.7 Click Here for a report on gene swapping among bacteria.
9.8 The Genetic Code
9.8a Click Here for an introduction to the research of Laura Landweber.
9.8b Click Here for "Do Non-standard Genetic Codes Present a Challenge to Evolutionary Theories?", by R. Joel Duff.
9.8c Click Here for "The Universal Genetic Code Seen from an ID Perspective", by Mike Gene.
9.8d Click Here for the PBS production "Cracking the Code of Life".
9.9a Click Here for "The Real Life of Pseudogenes", by Mark Gerstein and and Deyou Zheng
9.9b Click Here for "Plagiarized Errors and Molecular Genetics", by Edward Max
9.9c Click Here for "Plagiarized Errors and Molecular Genetics: A Response to 'AFDave'", by Edward Max.
9.9d Click Here for "Loss of Egg Yolk Genes in Mammals and the Origin of Lactation and Placentation", by David Brawand, Walter Wahli, Henrik Kaessmann.
9.9e Click Here and Here for the GULO pseudogene.
9.9f Click Here for "What can pseudogenes tell us about common ancestry" by Mary Ball and Steve Karr.
9.9g Click Here for "Pseudogenes: Are They Non-Functional?", by Pierre Jerlstrom for TrueOrigin.
9.9h Click Here for comments on pseudogenes by Dennis Venema.
9.9i Click Here for "Genesis and the Genome ..." by Dennis Venema.
General References on Fossils and the Fossil Record
10.1a Click Here for a general introduction to fossils: "Fossils - Windows to the past".
10.1b Click Here for "Fossilization" by Chris Nedin.
10.1c The University of California Museum of Paleontology maintains a valuable online collection called Paleontology Without Walls
10.1d Don Lindsay has a nicely illustrated set of speciation examples he calls Smooth Change in the Fossil Record .
10.1da Click Here OR HERE for further discussion of Foraminifera.
10.1db Click Here for The Micropaleontological Society.
10.1dd Click Here for Dan Georgescu's page on foraminifera.
10.1de Click Here for an illustrated forminifera taxon timeline.
Hunt compiled a long list for the talkorigins archive: Transitional
10.1f Click Here for Paleo Links - 2002, maintained by James Mahaffy of Dordt College.
10.1g Click Here for "Fossils" compiled by computer scientist Don Lindsay.
10.1h Click Here for information on how fossils are dated.
10.1i Click Here for the Geoscience Research Institute: a research and communication institute serving the Seventh-day Adventist church.
10.1j Click Here for an on-line introduction to earth history.
Here for "Estimation at Age of Death" by Nancy Lovell.
10.1m Click Here for "Sex Determination" by Nancy Lovell.
Here for "What Are Conodonts?" by Jim Davison.
10.1o Click Here for Palaeontologia Electronica.
10.1p Click Here for discussion of trace fossils.
10.1q Click Here for a 1815-1817 geologic map prepared by William Smith and two accompanying publications: "WILLIAM "STRATA" SMITH ON THE WEB", produced by Cecil J. Schneer, Professor Emeritus of Geology and the History of Science at the University of New Hampshire.
10.1r Click Here for some examples of index fossils.
10.1s Click Here for "Taxonomy, Transitional Forms, and the Fossil Record", by Keith Miller.
10.1t Click Here for Tracking Down "The Missing Link" by Ben Zimmer.
10.1u Click Here for "What produces order in the fossil record?", by Jonathan Baker
10.2The Vertebrate Sequence
10.2a A good place
to start is a 1994 compilation by Kathleen Hunt on Transitional
to Birds: Archaeopteryx and Longisquama
10.3a Although Johnson is ambivalent about the import of Archaeopteryx for the evolution of birds from reptiles, other creationists, such as Duane Gish, take more extreme exception to evolutionary arguments. Click Here for "Archaeopteryx: Answering the Challenge of the Fossil Record", a response to Gish by Chris Nedin.
10.3b Click Here for "All About Archaeopteryx" by Chris Nedin.
10.3c Click Here for The Archaeopteryx Pages .
10.3d Click Here for links on Archaeopteryx, ancient birds and dinosaur-bird relationships.
10.3f Click Here for a very good Archaeopteryx page by daily-tangents.
10.3g Click Here for the Archaeopteryx page of Nick Longrich.
10.3h Click Here for "Structure and function of hindlimb feathers in Archaeopteryx lithographica", by Nick Longrich.
10.3ha Click Here for "Wings on Hind Legs", with links to photos of fossils of Longisquama insignis, a Triassic thecodont reptile with feather-like scales.
Click Here for another description of Langisquama.
10.3hb Click Here for a report on the claim that Longisquama had feathers.
10.3hc Click here for a proposed revision of bird geneology in light of Longisquama.
10.3hd Click Here for a September 2000 update on Longisquama.
fossils with feathers and "feathered dinosaurs".
10.3ia Dinosaur-bird link smashed in fossil flap.
10.3ib Click Here for another article on Archaeoraptor.
10.3ic Click Here for "Dinos of a Feather: Evidence Mounts of Feathered Lizards".
10.3id Click Here for a 7 December, 2000 report on Protopteryx: "Ancient Chinese 'Bird' Used Feathers to Fly".
10.3ie Click Here for an April 2001 report by Mark Norell on a new dinosaur specimen unearthed in the Liaoning Province of the China that is said to demonstrate "exceptional preservation of
integumentary structures akin to primitive feathers."
Click Here for a press release from the American Museum of Natural History.
Click Here for an ABC News report.
Click Here for a CNN report.
10.3if Click Here for Yale University's Peabody Museum Exhibit: "China's Feathered Dinosaurs".
10.3ig Click Here for "Are Birds Really Dinosaurs?", by John R. Hutchinson.
10.3ih Click Here for Chapter 4 of Sarfati's Refuting Evolution: "Bird Evolution?".
10.3ii Click Here for a report on recent evolutionary developmental biological research into the origin of feathers.
10.3ij Click Here for "Feathers, scutes, and the origin of birds", by Jeff Poling.
10.3j Click Here for the homepage of bambiraptor.
10.3k Click Here for "Development of teeth in chick embryos after mouse neural crest transplantations", by Thimios A. Mitsiadis, Yvonnick Chéraud , Paul
Sharpe and Josiane Fontaine-Pérus.
and Early Tetrapods
10.4a Click Here to see a 2000 fossil find relevant to the relationship of fish to amphibians.
10.4c Click Here for an interview with Ted Daeschler and Neil Shubin: "How Fish Came Ashore". Their discovery is
discussed by Miller on page 125.
10.4d Click Here for a 2/28/01 news report on a fossil of an early lobe-finned fish, Achoania.
10.4e Click Here for a discussion of Acanthostega gunnari by Jennifer Clack. Click Here for a NOVA interview.
10.4f Click Here for a discussion of Ichthyostega by Jennifer Clack.
10.4g Click Here for discussion of genetic research on digit and limb articulation.
10.4i Click Here "Regulation of number and size of digits by posterior Hox genes: A dose-dependent mechanism with potential evolutionary implications" by József
10.4k Click Here just for fun, to see The Mudskipper, a little fish that can hop around on mud. (cute)
10.4L Click Here for ""Discovery of a Transitional in Romer's Gap", by Alec MacAndrew, on Pederpes finneyae.
10.4m Click Here for "Demorphing the Tetrapodomorpha".
10.4n Click Here for information on the Coelacanth, one of the most famous of the "living fossils".
10.4O Click Here for The "GREAT" Transition, by Neil Shubin.
10.4p Click Here for the University of Chicago site dedicated to Tiktaalik roseae.
10.4q Click Here for Hynerpeton.
10.4r Click Here for "Tetrapods Answer" by Dennis Murphy.
10.4s Click Here for "New Limbs from Old Fins, Part 2" by Stephen Matheson.
10.4t Click Here for "New Limbs from Old Fins, Part 3" by Stephen Matheson.
10.5a Click Here for "The Therapsid-Mammal Transitional Series" by Lenny Flank.
10.5b Click Here for "What really killed T. Rex?", a report on several explanations of dinosaur extinction.
10.5c Click Here for The Pterosaur Home Page.
10.5d Click Here for photographs and discussion of "A king-sized theropod coprolite found in Saskatchewan" (discussed by Miller on page 62).
10.5e Click Here for an illustrated discussion of the fossilized heart of Thescelosaurus.
10.5f Click Here for recent dinosaur discoveries by paleontologist Paul Sereno.
10.5g Click Here for "Heme Compounds in Dinosaur Trabecular Bone" by Mary Schweitzer et al.
10.5h Click Here for a young-earth creationist interpretation of Schweitzer's research by Carl Wieland.
10.5i Click Here for "Dino-blood and the Young Earth", by Gary Hurd
10.5j Click Here for ""Dino Blood Redux" by Gary Hurd..
10.5k Click Here for "Tyrannosaur Morsels" by P.Z. Myers.
10.5k Click Here for information on Alaskan dinosaur fossils.
10.5L Click Here for comments by Bob Bakker, a famous dinosaur fossil hunter and Pentacostal preacher.
10.5m Click Here for "The Proof is in the Poop!", by Greg Neyman for Answers in Creation.
10.6a Click Here for "'Polystrate' Tree Fossils" by Andrew MacRae.
10.6b Click Here for "Polystrate Fossils" by Don Lindsay.
10.6c Click Here for "What are Polystrate Fossils?" by John Morris of the Institute for Creation Research.
10.6d Click Here for an American Scientific Affiliation conversation on polystrate fossils archived in 1997.
10.6e Click Here for "The Polystrate Trees and Coal Seams of Joggins Fossil Cliffs" by John Morris.
10.6f Click Here for "The Fossil Cliffs of Joggins" by Laing Ferguson.
10.6g Click Here for "The Joggins Fossil Cliffs", maintained by the Nova Scotia Museum.
10.6h Click Here for discussion of a polystrate whale fossil discovered near Lompoc, California.
10.6i Click Here for a Wikipedia article on polystrate fossils.
10.7a Click Here for discussion of Hans Thewissen's discovery of Indohyus.
10.7b Click Here for the Whale website of Philip Gingerich.
10.7c Click Here for "The Origin of Whales and the Power of Independent Evidence" by Raymond Sutera.
10.7d Click Here for "Hooking Leviathan by Its Past" by Stephen Jay Gould (1994).
10.7e Click Here for "Ambulocetus Has No Pelvis and is Largely Incomplete?".
10.7ea Click here for Ambulocetus fossils.
10.7f Click Here for "CETACEAN EVOLUTION (WHALES, DOLPHINS, PORPOISES) by Edward T. Babinski
10.7g Click Here for a summary of recent developments in whale evolution research, "The Steps of the Puzzle", by Carl Zimmer.
10.7h Click Here for "THE EARLY RADIATIONS OF CETACEA (MAMMALIA): Evolutionary Pattern and Developmental Correlations", by
J. G. M. Thewissen and E. M. Williams (2002).
10.7i Click Here for "French-Chadian funded scientists reveal origin of hippos", on anthracotheres.
10.7j Click Here or Click Here for "The position of Hippopotamidae within Cetartiodactyla", by Jean-Renaud Boisserie , Fabrice Lihoreau , and Michel Brunet (2005)
10.7k Click Here for the Evolution of Dolphins and Whales Homepage
Creationist Interpretations of Whale Fossils
10.8a Click Here for "A Whale Fantasy from National Geographic" by Harun Yahya.
10.8b Click Here for "Walking whales, nested hierarchies, and chimeras: do they exist?" by John Woodmorappe.
10.8c Click Here for "Another whale of a tale: creationists without a 'whimper'?", by Mark Looy for Answers in Genesis.
10.8d Click Here for Chapter 5 from Refuting Evolution by Jonathan Sarfati: "Whale evolution?".
10.9 Snake Fossils
10.9a Click Here for Pachyrhachis problematicus, a fossil snake with legs.
10.9b Click Here for Haasiophis terrasanctus, another fossil snake with legs.
Elsberry has written a good summary of this topic called
Equilibrium. He also maintains a page called Evolution,
Anti-Evolution, and SciCre .
11.2 Punctuated equilibrium was initially proposed by Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge in 1972. It was an objection to what Gould has called
Darwinian Fundamentalism . The second half of this article is called Evolution: The Pleasures of Pluralism .
11.3 Click Here for "Snails Caught in Act of Evolution", a report on Gould's study of land snails as discussed by Miller on pages 118-121.
11.4 Eldredge proposed punctuated equilibria partly due to his study of trilobites. Click Here for A Guide to the Orders of Trilobites, maintained by
Sam Gon III, and Click Here for his gallery of Phacopida images, an order of trilobites particularly important in Eldredge's research.
11.5 Paleontologist Donald Prothero wrote an article for the Skeptic Society entitled Punctuated Equilibrium at Twenty: A Paleontological Perspective .
11.6 Although rather abstract by some standards, there is also a "Systems Approach" to punctuated equilibrium, for example, the ideas of F. Heylighen in
his article Punctuated Equilibrium .
11.7 For rapid evolution of bacteria that has been interpreted as support for punctuated equilibrium, see Score One for Punk Eek .
11.8 For a young earth catastrophist account of punctuated equilibrium, see PUNC EQ CREATION STYLE by Kurt Wise .
11.9 There is a wide variety of creationist views about speciation. In an article for Creation Ex Nihilo, young earth creationist Carl Wieland argues that
relatively rapid speciation is to be expected from a creationist perspective: Speciation Conference Brings Good News for Creationists .
THE CAMBRIAN EXPLOSION
11.11b Click Here for "When Life Exploded", a 1995 Time cover story on the Cambrian explosion by J. Madeleine Nash.
11.11c Click Here for The Cambrian Period, maintained by the UC Berkeley Museum of Paleontology.
11.11d Click Here for Burgess Shale fossils, maintained by Andrew MacRae of the University of Calgary.
11.11e Click Here for an introduction to pre-Cambrian animals, "Learning About Vendian Animals', maintained by the UC Berkeley Museum of
11.11g Click Here for "A Review of The Evidence For Trilobite Predecessors in the Fossil Record" by Robert B. MacNaughton.
11.11h Click Here for Palaeobiology: "The Realms of Archaean Life" by Euan Nisbet.
[Abstract: There is evidence of a variety of early organisms from the Archaean — some 4,000 to 2,500 million years ago. Now life at deep-sea hot springs
can provisionally be added to the list.]
11.11i Click Here for "Fossil Findings May Force Revisions in the History of Life", and Click Here for the technical article that is the basis of this report.
11.11j Click Here for "The Cambrian 'explosion': Slow-fuse or megatonnage?" by Simon Conway Morris.
11.11k Click Here for "Molecular Evidence for Deep Precambrian Divergences Among Metazoan Phyla" by Gregory A. Wray et al.
11.11L Click Here for "The Universal Ancestor" by Carl Woese.
11.11m Click Here for "Default taxonomy: Ernst Mayr's view of the microbial world by Carl Woese .
11.11n Click Here for "Protein Phylogenies and Signature Sequences: A Reappraisal of Evolutionary Relationships among Archaebacteria, Eubacteria,
and Eukaryotes", by Radhey S. Gupta.
11.11o Click Here for "Determining divergence times with a protein clock: Update and reevaluation", by Da-Fei Feng, Glen Cho, and Russell F. Doolittle
11.11p Click Here for 'Fun with geneology", by W. Ford Doolittle .
11.11q Click Here for "The Root of the Universal Tree and the Origin of Eukaryotes Based on Elongation Factor Phylogeny", by Baldauf, Palmer and W.
Ford Doolittle .
11.11r Click Here for "The Rooting of the Universal Tree of Life is Not Reliable", by Herve Philippe and Patrick Forterre.
11.11s Click Here for "Is There a Phylogenetic Signal in Prokaryote Proteins?", by Sarah A. Teichmann and Graeme Mitchison.
11.11t Click Here for "Origin of the metazoan phyla: Molecular clocks confirm paleontological estimates", by Francisco J. Ayala et al.
12.1. THE Giant
12.1a The Panda's Thumb , by Paul & Susan Morris
12.1b Intelligent Design is not Optimal Design by William Dembski
12.1c Click Here for "Adaptations within the Bear Family: A Contribution to the Debate about the Limits of Variation", by David Tyler of the Creation
12.1d Evidence for Jury-Rigged Design in Nature compiled by Chris Colby and Loren Petrich et al.
12.2 Human Vision
12.2a On the "blind spot" in human vision, see Eyes and the Argument from Design .
12.2b For quotations by biologists Frank Zindler and George Williams on the design of the human eye, click here .
12.2c For a more detailed discussion, see How Could an Eye Evolve? by Don Lindsay .
12.2d For an argument that the eye IS well designed, see Why is the Retina Back-to-Front? .
12.3 Vestigial Evidence
12.3a Click Here for discussion of vestigial organs.
12.3b Click Here for a discussion of vestigial organs by Mark Isaak.
12.3c Click Here for "Vestigial Evidence".
12.4 Click Here for "Anatomy and Evolution of the Woodpecker's Tongue", by Rusty Ryan.
13. MOLECULAR EVIDENCE
13.1 Non-technical Articles
13.1a For their analysis of the molecular data, Johnson and Sarfati rely heavily upon a book by Michael Denton: Evolution: A Theory in Crisis. Click Here for several analyses of Denton's book.
13.1b Click Here for a detailed critique of the Denton argument by zoologist Wesley R. Elsberry: "Sequences and Common Descent". Click Here for an important
preliminary tutorial on prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Click Here for an example of the argument Elsberry is critiquing.
13.1c Click Here for an analysis of "The Schwabe-Denton interpretation of cytochrome-c differences" by Gert Korthof.
13.1d Click Here for "Invariant Cytochrome C Sequences Disprove Evolution?".
13.1e Click Here for "Equidistant Proteins Disprove Evolution?".
13.1f Click here for an argument by Steve Hinrichs that redundant DNA sequences and amino acid sequencing offers compelling evidence for Common
13.1g Click Here for discussion of Kent Hovind's claim that human cytochrome c is closest to that of a sunflower.
13.1h Click Here for discussion of Walt Brown's claim about the cytochrome c of humans and a rattlesnake.
13.1i Biochemist Terry Gray has some comments on DNA sequence data in his review of Darwin on Trial; see The Mistrial of Evolution .
13.1j Click Here for a Kenneth Miller review of the controversial textbook, Of Pandas and People, which includes a discussion of molecular data.
13.1k Click Here for "Plagiarized Errors and Molecular Genetics" by Edward Max.
13.1L Click Here for "Different Species with the Same 'Junk DNA'", by Don Lindsay .
13.1m Click Here for "Comparison of the Human and Great Ape Chromosomes as Evidence for Common Ancestory", by Robert Williams.
13.1n Click Here for "Stasis Considered" by Michael Thomas, an argument against the view that the molecular evidence supports macroevolutionary
13.1O Click Here for "Pseudogenes: Are They Non-Functional?", by Pierre Jerlstrom for TrueOrigin.
13.1p Click Here for discussion of Sarfati's claim that "Human lysozyme is closer to chicken lysozyme than to that of any other mammal", Refuting
Evolution, p. 83.
13.1q Click Here for "SNPs as Windows on Evolution" by Ricki Lewis.
13.1s Click Here for an online debate over the molecular evidence between David Thomas and Walter Remine.
13.1t Click Here for "What can pseudogenes tell us about common ancestry" by Mary Ball and Steve Karr.
13.2 Molecular Clocks
13.2a Click here for a discussion of the neutral theory of molecular evolution.
13.2b Click here for discussion of the neutralist-selectionist controversy.
13.2c Click Here for a review article: "The Molecular Clock: In analyzing sequence substitutions, more genes tell better evolutionary time".
13.2d Click Here for "A methodological bias toward overestimation of molecular evolutionary time scales" by Rodriguez-Trelles, Tarrio and Francisco
Ayala (11 June, 2002).
13.3 Technical Articles
13.3a Click Here for "The Molecular Anatomy of an Ancient Adaptive Event" by Anthony M. Dean.
13.3b Click Here for "Constructing primate phylogenies from ancient retrovirus sequences", by Welkin E. Johnson and John M. Coffin.
13.3c Click Here for "Structural analysis of the nurse shark (new) antigen receptor (NAR): Molecular convergence of NAR and unusual mammalian
immunoglobins" by Roux et al. (discussed by Sarfati on page 83)
13.3d Click here for "Phylogenetic relationships among cetartiodactyls based on insertions of short and long interspersed elements: Hippopotamuses are
the closest extant relatives of whales", by Masato Nikaido et al.
13.3e Click Here for "An Irregular Bulge Common to a Group of BacterialRNases is an Important Determinant of Stability and Function in Barnase", by
Douglas Axe, N. Foster and A. Fersht.
13.3f Click Here for "The Effect of High-frequency Random Mutagenesis on in Vitro Protein Evolution" by M. Zaccolo and E. Gherardi.
13.3g Click Here for "Extreme Functional Sensitivity to Conservative Amino Acid Changes on Enzyme Exteriors", by Douglas Axe.
13.3h Click Here for recent sequence data pertaining to the "out-of-Africa" thesis for human evolution.
13.3i Click Here for "Testing a Biosynthetic Theory of the Genetic Code: Fact or Artifact?", by Terres Ronneberg et al.
13.3j Click here for discussion of the research of molecular biologist Carl Woese .
13.3k Click Here for "Integrated fossil and molecular data reconstruct bat echolocation" by Mark Springer et al.
13.3L Click Here for "Conflict Among Individual Mitochondrial Proteins in Resolving the Phylogeny of Eutherian Orders", by Ying Cao et al.
13.3m Click Here for "Complementary Advantageous Substitutions in the Evolution of an Antiviral RNase of Higher Primates", by Jianzhi Zhang and Helene
13.3n Click Here for "Phylogenetic Classification and the Universal Tree", by W. Ford Doolittle.
13.3m Click Here for "Molecular evidence for the common origin of snap-traps among carnivorous plants", by Kenneth M. Cameron, Kenneth J. Wurdack and Richard W. Jobson.
EVOLUTIONARY DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
14.1 Click Here for a special series of on-line articles on evolutionary developmental biology compiled by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
14.2a Click Here for "Haeckel and the Vertebrate Archetype" by Scott Gilbert.
14.2b Click Here for Kenneth Miller's comments on Haeckel's drawings.
14.2c For further discussion of the Ernst Haeckel illustrations, see Haeckel's Law .
14.2d Michael K. Richardson is a developmental biologist who has written on Haeckel's drawings.
Click Here for his recreation of Haeckel's embryo drawings using photographs of real specimens.
Click Here for access to his other Haeckel Miscellanea.
14.2e Click Here for "Haeckel's Embryos" by Troy Britain.
14.2f Click Here for "Piltdown Embryo" by Steve Rudd for The Interactive Bible .
14.2g Click Here for examples of embryological evidence of common descent compiled by Douglas Theobald.
14.2h Click Here for "Wells and Haeckel's Embryos: A Review of Chapter 5 of Icons of Evolution" by PZ Myers.
14.2i Click Here for "Iconoclasts of Evolution: Haeckel, Behe, Wells & the Ontogeny of a Fraud", by Kurt Pickett, John Wenzel and Steven Rissing.
14.2j Click Here for "Haeckel's ABC of Evolution and Development", by Michael K. Richardson and Gerhard Keuck.
14.2k Click Here for "Haeckel's embyos: fraud not proven", by Robert Richards (2009).
14.3 For information
relevant to Johnson's comments on the role of developmental biology in
evolutionary theory, see ZYGOTE
, maintained by Scott Gilbert, especially the material he has compiled
on evolution and developmental biology in relation to Chapter 23 of his
Biology . This includes discussion of Ernst Haeckel.
14.4 Click Here for "Darwinism and Developmental Systems" by Paul E. Griffiths and Russell D. Gray.
14.5 Click Here for an illustrated news release concerning recent research on "how insects lost their legs".
14.6 Click Here for the technical article on insect legs by Lewis, DeCamillis and Bennett.
14.7 Click Here for "The evolution of evo-devo biology" by Corey Goodman and Bridget Coughlin.
Click Here for
"Development of teeth in chick embryos after mouse neural crest
transplantations", by Thimios A. Mitsiadis, Yvonnick Chéraud ,
Paul Sharpe and Josiane Fontaine-Pérus.
14.9 Click Here for Hindlimb Development in a Dolphin, by Hans Thewissen.
14.10 Click Here for Nose to Blowhole, by Hans Thewissen.
Here for "Origins of Structure in Globular Proteins" by Hue Chan
and Ken Dill.
15.2 Click Here for a response to Chan and Dill from intelligent design proponent Michael Behe.
15.3 Click Here for "Polymer Principles and Protein folding" by Ken A. Dill.
15.4 Click Here for an interesting case of molecular evolution in the antifreeze protein genes of Antarctic fish.
15.5 Click Here for "The descent of the antibody-based immune system by gradual evolution ", by
15.5a Subsequent to the publication of Johnson's book, Michael Behe published his 1996 book, Darwin's Black Box: the Biochemical Challenge to Evolution, in which he extended the biochemical arguments raised by Johnson. In 1996 Behe also posted a short summary of his views called Molecular Machines: Experimental Support for the Design Inference . Click Here for a statement from the Department of Biological Sciences at Behe's Lehigh University. Click Here for comments by Jill E. Schneider, a colleague of Behe's at Lehigh University.15.5 Michael Behe
16.1 Click Here for a discussion of Zoogeographic Provinces.
16.2 Click Here for Biodiversity on the Internet.
17. ORIGIN OF LIFE, INFORMATION, AND COMPLEXITY
for an interview with Stanley Miller: "From Primordial Soup to the Prebiotic
17.2 Click Here for "Emergence of Life and Biological Selection from the Perspective of Complex System Dynamics", by Bruce Weber.
17.3 Click Here for Leslie Orgel's website on origin of life.
17.5 The Santa
Fe Institute is an active center for origin of life research.
17.5a Click Here for Stuart Kauffman, one of the most prominent researchers at the Santa Fe Institute.
17.5b Click Here for "A quick introduction to the Algorithmic Chemistry project at the Santa Fe Institute".
Here for the homepage of Jack Corliss, another theorist
who studies the origin of life using the self-organization of complex systems.
17.7 Click Here for the New England Complex Systems Institute.
17.8 Click Here for Studies on the Origin of Life, maintained by the American Scientific Affiliation .
17.9 Click Here for "Life as a Manisfestation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics" by Eric Schneider and James Kay.
17.10 Click Here for "Self-replicating Enzymes? A critique of some current evolutionary origin-of-life models" by Jonathan Sarfati of Answers in Genesis.
17.12 Click Here for "Atmospheric aerosols as prebiotic chemical reactors" by Christopher Dobson et al.
17.13 Click Here for "Selective adsorption of L- and D- amino acids on calcite: Implications for biochemical homochirility" by Robert M. Hazen et al., May 8, 2001.
17.13a Click Here for a Science News report: "Rocks May Have Given a Hand to Life".
17.14 Click Here for "Syntactic Autonomy: Or Why There is no Autonomy Without Symbols and how Self-Organizing Systems Might Evolve Them" by LUIS MATEUS
17.15 Carl Woese
17.15a Click Here for a report on recent research by Carl Woese : "New Cellular evolution theory rejects single cell beginning". (17 June, 2002)
17.15b Click Here for another report on Woese and other early life researchers: "Genetic Analysis Yields Estimations of a Primordial Commune."
17.15c Click Here for Woese's article "On the Evolution of Cells". (25 June, 2002)
17.15d Click Here for a report on the work of Woese and others by Brendan Maher.
17.15e Click Here for "Protein Phylogenies and Signature Sequences: A Reappraisal of Evolutionary Relationships among Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, and Eukaryotes", by Radhey S. Gupta.
Here for "Comparative genomics and evolution of proteins involved
in RNA metabolism" by Vivek Anantharaman, Eugene Koonin and L.
17.17 Click Here for "Prebiotic synthesis from CO atmospheres: Implications for the origins of life", by Miyakawa, Yamanashi, Kobayashi, Cleaves and
17.18 Click Here to get a pdf version of "The Evolutionary Origin of Complex Features", by Richard E. Lenski, Charles Ofria, Robert T. Pennock,
Christoph Adami, Nature (Vol. 423, 2003, pp. 139-145)
17.19 Click Here for "Life" by Bruce Weber.
17.20 Click Here for Order from Chaos: The Sierpinksi Gasket.
17.21 Click Here for "Information Theory and Creationism", by Ian Musgrave, Rich Baldwin, and others.
17.22 Click Here for Exploring Life's Origins.
18. STEPHEN JAY GOULD AND RICHARD DAWKINS
Here for Stephen Jay Gould Links.
18.2 For more information on the outspoken zoologist Richard Dawkins, click Richard Dawkins or Here.
18.3 Gould has often been at odds with Dawkins about the significance of natural selection. Gould and Dawkins discuss their disagreements about complexity, contingency and progress in two interviews carried out by the Skeptics Society:
18.4 For many links on Stephen Jay Gould and his disagreements with Richard Dawkins over gradualism, see The Gould Files
18.5 One of the major controversies in modern evolutionary theory is about the degree to which natural selection is the driving force behind evolutionary change.Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Lewontin have adamantly objected to what they consider to be an excessive expectation that observed traits are adaptations produced by natural selection. In 1979 they wrote a famous article on the subject using the spandrels of the Basilica de San Marco to make their point. Click Here for "The Spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian Paradigm: A Critique of the Adaptationist Programme", by Gould and Lewontin.
18.6 In 1996 Robert Mark wrote a nicely illustrated essay on the spandrel argument for American Scientist. See Architecture and Evolution .
18.7 Dawkins reviewed Gould's book Full House in a review called Human Chauvinism.
18.8 Click Here for Gould's essay "The Pattern of Life's History", Chapter 2 from The Third Culture .
18.9 Click Here for Dawkins' essay "A Survival Machine", Chapter 3 from The Third Culture .
18.10 Click Here for "I Have Landed", Gould's last essay for Natural History, January 2001.
18.11 Click Here for The Unofficial Stephen Jay Gould Archive.
18.12 Another interesting reaction to Gould by sociobiologist Richard Wright recently appeared in The New Yorker: The Accidental Creationist .
Richard Wright's latest book is Nonzero: The Logic of Human Destiny .
18.13 Click Here for an interview with Dawkins: "The Problem with God".
18.14 Click Here or Click Here for a Colbert Report Interview with Dawkins.
18.15 Click Here for the Richard Dawkins Foundation.
18.16 Click Here for Beyond Belief: Science, Religion, Reason and Survival.
18.17 Click Here for the Richard Dawkins Website.
18.18 Click Here for The World of Richard Dawkins.
19. LEGAL AND EDUCATIONAL ISSUES
19.1 Legal and Educational Resources
19.1a The National
Academy of Sciences describes itself as "a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating
society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering
research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to
their use for the general welfare". This statement is taken from their
1998 publication Teaching
About Evolution and the Nature of Science .
19.1b Click Here for "Update on Challenges to the Teaching of Evolution" maintained by the American Geological Institute.
19.1c The National Science Teachers Association has compiled some relevant resources called NSTA Evolution Resources .
19.1d Directed by Eugenie Scott, the National Center for Science Education acts as a clearing house to prevent the teaching of creation as an alternative to evolution in public schools.
19.1e National Association of Biology Teachers: Statement on the Teaching of Evolution
19.1f Eugenie Scott: NABT Statement on Evolution Evolves
19.1g The National Association of Biology Teachers: Evolution Resources
19.1h Click Here for "Science Report: A third of U.S. schools don't teach evolution".
19.1i The American Scientific Affiliation describes itself as "a fellowship of men and women of science and disciplines that relate to science who share a common fidelity to the Word of God and a commitment to integrity in the practice of science."
19.1ia In 1995, the ASA contributed to a school board decision concerning evolution in Hemet California: A School Board Success Story
19.1j Click Here for the State of California Science Content Standards for the K-12 science curriculum.
19.1k Click Here for materials compiled on Roger DeHart's attempt to use additional intelligent design materials in his high school biology class by Carl
Johnson of the Burlington-Edison Committee for Science Education.
19.1L Click here for "Development of Evolution Teaching Policy in Light of Continued Debate Regarding the Teaching of Evolution and Creationism in the
U.S. Classrooms" by David Stone who teaches high school biology for the University Laboratory High School.
19.1m Click Here for the Evolution and the Nature of Science Institute, which is "a collection of classroom lessons to help high school biology
teachers more effectively teach basic concepts in the areas of evolution and the nature of science."
19.1n Click Here for discussion and text of many anti-evolution Bills documented by the National Center for Science Education.
19.1o Click Here for information posted by the Georgia Citizens for Integrity in Science Education.
19.1p Click Here for state-by-state information provided by the American Institute of Biological Sciences.
19.1q Click Here for access to "Science, Religion, and the Teaching of Evolution in Public School Science Classes", a statement issued by the National Council
of Churches Committee on Public Education and Literacy.
19.1r Click Here for "Lawful Design: A New Standard for Evaluating Establishment Clause Challenges to School Science Curricula", by Charles Kitcher.
19.1s Click Here for the British Centre for Science Education.
19.1t Click Here for The Clarence Darrow Digital Collection (on the Scopes Trial).
19.2 Important Educational Bills and Court Cases
19.2a Arkansas 1968, 1982
19.2aa After a lengthy legal process, in 1968 the United States Supreme Court ruled that an Arkansas statute prohibiting the teaching of evolutionary theory in public schools was unconstitutional; the case was Susan Epperson et al., v State of Arkansas
19.2ab In 1982, U.S. District Court Judge William R. Overton ruled that the 1981 Arkansas "Balanced Treatment" Bill, Arkansas Act 590, was unconstitutional;
Click Here for a transcript of Act 590.
Click Here for Judge Overton's decision.
19.2ac Click Here for the McLean v. Arkansas Documentation Project, correlated by Wesley Elsberry and Troy Britain.
19.2ad For Stephen Jay Gould's 1982 reaction to this case see Genesis vs. Geology .
19.2ae Click Here for an article on Michael Ruse, a philosopher of science who testified in the McLean v. Arkansas case.
19.2b Louisiana 1987
19.2ba The United States Supreme Court ruled on the Louisiana Balanced Treatment Bill in the 1987 decision Edwards v Aguillard .
19.2c KANSAS 1999-2001
On August 11 of 1999 the Kansas State Board of Education generated controversy by recommending that most evolutionary theory be dropped from the Kansas public school Science Education Standards.
19.2ca A useful collection of documents pertaining to this decision has been collected by the Kansas Citizens for Science.
19.2cb Click here for the minutes of the August 11, 1999 Kansas State Board of Education.
19.2cc Tom Willis of the Creation Science Association for Mid-America helped draft the Board's recommendation. The Association has posted many
useful documents on this case at its resource called Truth about the Kansas Science Standards Tornado .
19.2cd Tom Willis was interviewed on August 23, 1999 by the Washington Post .
19.2ce Stephen Jay Gould gave his response to the Kansas decision in an article for Time: Dorothy, It's Really Oz .
19.2cf For Michael Behe's assessment of the Kansas case, see Darwin's Hostages .
19.2cg Phillip Johnson wrote a response called The Church of Darwin .
19.2ch Johnson made other comments on education in a 1993 INTERVIEW with Yves Barbero.
19.2ci Click Here for the transcript of a July 27 2000 ABC Nightline production that includes an interview with Phillip Johnson: "God and Evolution in
19.2cj Click Here for an essay on the Kansas case by Eugenie Scott and numerous responses.
19.2ck Click Here for an opinion article from the Kansas City Star.
19.2cl Click Here for the Intelligent Design Network, organized in 1999 in response to the Kansas controversy.
19.2cm Click Here for correspondence from IDN concerning the reinstatment of evolution in Kansas schools.
19.2cn Click Here for a report on the Kansas Board of Education Republican primary election results of August 2000.
19.2co Click Here for a New York Times report on the primary results.
19.2cp Click Here for a February 2001 Topeka Capital-Journal article on the reinstatement of evolution into the Kansas public school curriculum.
19.2cq Click Here for the new standards adopted in Kansas in February 2001.
19.2da Click Here for a June 19, 2000 ACLU report on the Tangipahoa Parish Board of Education controversy.
19.2db Click Here for the decision in the June 19, 2000 case of Tangipahoa Parish Board of Education et al v Herb Freiler et al. in the United States
Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit.
19.2dc Click Here for a pdf file of Chief Justice Scalia's dissenting opinion when the United States Supreme Court ruled not to reopen the decision of the
Court of Appeals, or Click Here for an on-line version.
19.2dd Click Here for the text of the initial version of Louisiana HCR 74. After a one hour hearing, the House Education Committee of the Louisiana State Legislature passed this version of HCR 74 on May 1, 2001 by a vote of 9 to 5. It was sent to the full house for debate.
19.2de Click Here for video of the House Education Committee hearing (start watching at the 3 hour, 18 minute mark).
19.2df Click Here for a salon.com discussion: "Louisiana calls Darwin a Racist".
19.2ea Click Here for text of Arkansas House Bill 2548, an anti-evolutionary bill proposed in February 2001 in the Arkansas legislature by Representative Holt that would make it illegal for the state or any of its agencies to use state funds to purchase materials that contain "false or fraudulent" claims. Click Herefor discussion of the bill by Wesley R. Elsberry.
19.2fa Click Here for Michigan House Bill 4382. The Bill includes the following:
IN THE SCIENCE STANDARDS, ALL REFERENCES TO “EVOLUTION” AND “HOW SPECIES CHANGE THROUGH TIME” SHALL BE MODIFIED TO INDICATE THAT THIS IS AN UNPROVEN THEORY BY ADDING THE PHRASE “ALL STUDENTS WILL EXPLAIN THE COMPETING THEORIES OF EVOLUTION AND NATURAL SELECTION BASED ON RANDOM MUTATION AND THE THEORY THAT LIFE IS THE RESULT OF THE PURPOSEFUL, INTELLIGENT DESIGN OF A CREATOR.”.
19.2fb Click Here for resources on this bill compiled by Todd Greene .
19.2g Ohio 2002
19.2ga Click here for materials relevant to the 2002 Ohio Board of Education debate concerning evolution in the Ohio public school science curriculum (developed by the National Center for Science Education .)
19.2gb Click Here for discussion by Kenneth Miller of the "Santorum Amendment", an amendment initially proposed for inclusion in Public Law 107-110, the "No Child Left Behind" Education Bill.
19.2h Missouri 2004
Click Here for Missouri House Bill 1722 which calls for balanced treatment of biological evolution and "biological intelligent design".
Dover Pennsylvania 2004-2005
Kitzmiller et al. v. Dover Area School District
19.2ia Click Here for court documents posted by talk.origins. Click Here for the decision of the court by Judge John E. Jones.
19.2ib Click Here for the text of Kitzmiller et al. v. Dover Area School District, the suit filed on December 14, 2004.
19.2ic Click Here for extensive documentation pertaining to this case, maintained by the National Center for Science Education.
19.2id Click Here for Speaking Freely: The blog of the ACLU of Pennsylvania, with links to many court documents.
19.2ie Click Here for links to documents provided by Americans United for Separation of Church and State.
19.2if Click Here for a Panda's Thumb blog with links to news and commentary.
19.2ig Click Here for commentary by Chris Mooney.
19.2ih Click Here for the opening Expert Statement by Kenneth Miller.
19.2ii Click Here for Miller's first morning of testimony and Click Here for his afternoon testimony.
19.2ij Click Here for the United States District Court website dedicated to this case.
19.2ik Click Here for another source of documents by Wikipedia.
19.2iL Click Here for transcripts and video of "Science Wars: Should Schools Teach Intelligent Design?", a workshop sponsored by the American Enterprise
Institute for Public Policy Research, October 21, 2005.
Click Here for a 2003 paper cited by Ken Miller at this workshop:
"Bacterial type III secretion systems are ancient and evolved by multiple horizontal-transfer events", by Uri Gophna, Eliora Z. Ron, and Dan Graur.
19.2im Click Here for "Intelligent Design on Trial" by Edward B. Davis.
19.2in Click Here for commentary by philosopher Alvin Plantinga.
19.2iO Click Here for "Seeing Government Purpose through the Objective Observer's Eyes: The Evolution Intelligent Design Debates", by Kristi L. Bowman.
19.2ip Click Here for "The 'Vise Strategy' Undone: Kitzmiller et al v. Dover Area School District", by Barbara Forrest.
19.2iq Click Here for a January 2006 interview with Michael Behe.
19.2ir Click Here for an October 2006 article on Judge John E. Jones III in The Lutheran, the magazine of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.
19.2is Click Here for the transcript of a Public Affairs Forum Presented May 17, 2006: "Keeping Science & Religion Separate in Schools: THE VIGIL AFTER DOVER".
19.2it Click Here for the slides used by Kevin Padian in his testimony at Dover.
19.2iu Click Here for the NOVA production "Judgment Day: Intelligent Design on Trial".
19.2iv Click Here for "Darwin, Dover, 'Intelligent Design' and textbooks", by Kevin Padian and Nicholas Matzke.
19.2iw Click Here for "Five Years After A Landmark Court Ruling Against ‘Intelligent Design,’ Evolution Opponents Are Still On The Prowl" by Sandya Bathija. (January, 2011)
19.2ja Click Here for the 13 January 2005 decision on the Cobb County case involving stickers in textbooks:
"This textbook contains material on evolution. Evolution is a theory, not a fact, regarding the origin of living things. This material should
be approached with an open mind, studied carefully, and critically considered."
19.2jb Click Here for the 13 January 2005 decision with links to commentary.
19.2jc Click Here for the 25 May 2006 decision by the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit.
19.2jd Click Here for Georgia Citizens for Integrity in Science Education.
19.2je Click Here for information of the 19 December, 2006 settlement to end the sticker placement.
19.2ka Click Here for reviews of proposed changes in Kansas science education, 2004-2005.
19.2kb Click Here for the Coalition for Science: Speaking for Science Education in Kansas.
19.2kc Click Here for "Kansas Denied Use of National Science Education Standards".
19.2kd Click Here for KCFS News and Resources.
19.2ke Click Here for "Kansas Science Standards 2005", resources compiled by the eight authors of the revisions to the Kansas Science Standards.
19.2kf Click Here for "Standup for Science", resources compiled by the Discovery Institute.
19.2kg Click Here for "Some FACTS about the Kansas BOE’s new science standards", posted by Kansas Citizens for Science.
19.2La Click Here for documents pertaining to the suit brought against the El Tejon Unified School District January10, 2006.
19.2Lb Click Here for the text of the complaint filed 10 January 2006, Hurst v Newman.
19.2Lc Click Here for information on the Lancaster California "Science Philosophy" Policy adopted in March 2006.
19.3 Textbook Controversies
Of Pandas and People
19.3aa Click Here for a Kenneth Miller review of the controversial textbook, Of Pandas and People.
19.3ab Click Here for a review of Pandas written for the National Association of Biology Teachers by Richard Aulie.
19.3ac Click Here for reactions to Pandas from The Textbook League .
19.3ad Click Here for resources on Of Pandas and People collated by the National Center for Science Education.
here for "Good Science, Bad Science: Teaching Evolution in the States"
by Lawrence Lerner of CSULB, published by the Thomas B.
Fordham Foundation, January 2000.
19.3c Click Here for a response to "Good Science, Bad Science" by Jonathan Wells and Jay Richards of the Discovery Institute.
19.3d Click here for "An Evaluation of Ten Recent Biology Textbooks" by Jonathan Wells of the Discovery Institute.
19.3e Wells has also written a book titled Icons of Evolution. Click Here for a review by David Ussery
and Click Here for further analysis by Massimo Pigliucci. Click Here for other articles by Wells.
19.3f Click Here for a Kenneth Miller analysis of a disclaimer about evolution placed in science texts in several states.
20. INTELLIGENT DESIGN
20.1 Intelligent Design Resources
20.1a Click Here for a classic text on the design argument, David Hume's 1779 Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion.
20.1ba Click Here for the Access Research Network (ARN), one of the primary sources of intelligent design publications and resources.
20.1bb Click Here for ARN's "Frequently Asked Questions about Intelligent Design".
20.1bc Click Here for another ARN site dedicated to intelligent design.
20.1bd Click Here for "the Wedge Update", maintained by ARN's Mark Hartwig.
20.1c Click Here for Intelligent Design Theory: "A New Science for a New Century"?, a lengthy collection of references for intelligent design
theory compiled by John M. Lynch .
20.1d Click Here for commentary on Intelligent Design publications by Mark Isaak.
20.1d Click Here for the Discovery Institute, an advocate of intelligent design through its Center for Science and Culture
Click Here for the Intelligent Design Society of Kansas.
Click Here for a little humor from the reDiscovery Institute. Click Here for a snappy jingle.
Click Here for an article on the origins of the Discovery Institute by Chris Mooney, "Inferior Design".
Click Here for an early posting of the Discovery Institute's Wedge Strategy.
Click Here for a formatted copy of the Wedge Strategy hosted by John M. Lynch. Click Here for another copy.
Click Here for a 1 February 2006 Seattle Weekly article on the origins of the The Wedge.
Click Here for the Discovery Institute's "Evolution News & Views: News Analysis of Media Coverage of the Debate Over Evolution".
Click Here for the Biologic Institute.
Click Here for Faith and Evolution
20.1e The Foundation for Thought and Ethics advocates the introduction of intelligent design theory in public school curricula. See their argument in
Intelligent Design in Public School Science Curricula: A Legal Guidebook .
20.1f Click Here for "Teaching the Origins Controversy: A Guide for the Perplexed" by David K. DeWolf of the Discovery Institute.
20.1g Click Here for ORIGINS, a website dedicated to intelligent design and philosophical theism.
20.1h Click Here for "Design Features of the Monarch Butterfly Life Cycle" by Jules Poirier and Kenneth Cumming of the Institute for Creation Research.
20.1i Click Here for a review of John Haught's book, God After Darwin: A Theology of Evolution by Michael Behe, together with a response from Haught.
20.1j Click Here for "We're Not in Kansas Anymore: why secular scientists and media can't admit that Darwinism might be wrong" by Nancy Pearcey.
20.1k Click Here for "Getting God A Pass: Science, Theology and the Consideration of Intelligent Design", by John Mark Reynolds .
20.1L Click Here for the International Society for Complexity, Information and Design.
20.1m Click Here for the Intelligent Design and Evolution Awareness Club at the University of California San Diego.
20.1n Click Here for the Intelligent Design network, inc.
20.1O Click Here for The Intelligent Designer Speaks.
20.1p Click Here for "Life in the Big Tent: Traditional Creationism and the Intelligent Design Community", By Paul A. Nelson.
20.1q Click Here for the ID blog Intelligent Design the Future.
20.1r Click Here for information on the movie "Flock of Dodos: The Evolution - Intelligent Design Circus".
20.1s Click Here for "Seeing Government Purpose Through the Objective Observer's Eyes: The Evolution-Intelligent Design Debates", by Kristi L. Bowman.
20.1t Click Here for the Intelligent Design blog of Andrew Rowell.
20.1u Click Here for "Intelligent Design and the the End of Science", by Jeffrey Koperski.
20.1O Click Here for Overwhelming Evidence, ID for high school students.
20.1p Click Here for Intelligent Design Facts.
20.2 Critiques of the Intelligent Design Movement
20.2a Historian of science Edward B. Davis is a theistic evolutionist and has critiqued the intelligent design movement in his article Of God and Gaps:
Intelligent Design and Darwinian Evolution .
Robert Pennock has written a critique of the new intelligent design movement called Tower of Babel .
Click Here to read Pennock's first chapter, a historical survey of creationist movements in the United States.
Click Here for a review by Johnson. Click Here for a response from Pennock.
20.2c Click Here for a February 28, 2001 Salon.com review of the intelligent design movement: "Assault on Evolution".
20.2d Click Here for "Darwin in Mind: 'Intelligent Design' Meets Artificial Intelligence", by Taner Edis.
[Abstract: What's Wrong with the Information Argument Against Evolution? Proponents of "Intelligent Design" claim information theory refutes Darwinian
evolution. Modern physics and artificial intelligence research turns their arguments on their head.]
20.2e Click Here for Talkdesign.org: Critically Examining the 'Intelligent Design' Movement.
20.2f Click Here for "E. Coli at the No Free Lunchroom: Bacterial Flagella and Dembski’s Case for Intelligent Design", by Howard J. Van Till.
20.2g Click Here for Unintelligent Design, a collection of essays critical of the ID movement and moderated by Mark Perakh at Talk Reason.
20.2ga Click Here for THE DESIGN REVOLUTION? How William Dembski Is Dodging Questions About Intelligent Design by Mark Perakh.
20.2gb Click Here for THE DESIGNER-OF-THE-GAPS REVISITED A critique of William Dembski's article "Irreducible Complexity Revisited"
by Richard Wein.
20.2h Click Here for "The Wedge at Work: How Intelligent Design Creationism Is Wedging Its Way into the Cultural and Academic Mainstream", by
Barbara Forrest. Click Here for information on Creationism's Trojan Horse; the Wedge of Intelligent Design, by Barbara Forest
and Paul Gross.
20.2i Click Here for "Darwin's Discovery: Design without Designer", by Francisco Ayala.
20.2j Click Here for "The advantages of theft over toil: the design inference and arguing from ignorance", by John S. Wilkins and Wesley R. Elsberry.
20.2k Click Here for "Not a Free Lunch But a Box of Chocolates: A critique of William Dembski's book No Free Lunch", by Richard Wein.
20.2L Click Here for "Intelligent Design: Creationism's Trojan Horse" (Feb, 2005), by Barbara Forrest.
20.2m Click Here for the reDiscovery Institute.
20.2n Click Here for "Being Stalked by Intelligent Design", by Pat Shipman.
20.2O Click Here for "Is it Science Yet?: Intelligent Design Creationism and the Constitution", by Matthew J. Brauer, Barbara Forrest, and Steven G. Gey.
20.2p Click Here for SETI and Intelligent Design.
20.2q Click Here for 'Turn out the lights, the “Teach the controversy” party’s over', By Robert Camp.
20.2r Click Here for Creation & Intelligent Design Watch, Hosted by the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal.
20.2s Click Here for "The Other ID Opponents: Traditional Creationists see Intelligent Design as an Attack on the Bible", by Rob Moll.
20.2t Click Here for "Bacterial type III secretion systems are ancient and evolved by multiple horizontal-transfer events",
by Uri Gophna, Eliora Z. Ron, and Dan Graur (2003).
20.2u Click Here for Conservatives Against Intelligent Design.
20.2v Click Here for "Lawful Design: A New Standard for Evaluating Establishment Clause Challenges to School Science Curricula", by Charles Kitcher.
20.2w Click Here for "Turn out the lights, the “Teach the controversy” party’s over", by Robert Camp.
20.2x Click Here for "Life's Grand Design", by Ken Miller.
20.2y Click Here for "Is Intelligent Design 'Scientific'”?, by Loren Haarsma.
20.3 Bombardier Beetles and Intelligent Design
20.3a For an evolutionary response to the argument from design, see “Bombardier Beetles and the Argument of Design”, 1997, by Mark Isaak .
20.3b Click Here for "Spray aiming in the bombardier beetle: Photographic evidence".
20.3c Click Here for "The Amazing Bombardier Beetle!" posted by Answers in Genesis.
20.3d Click Here for "Reducibly Complex Bombardier Beetles" by T. Ryan Gregory.
Here for "An Interventionist Theory of Natural Selection and Biological
Change within Limits" by Leonard Brand and L. James Gibson.
20.5 For discussion of a recent case in which intelligent design was being taught in a Kansas public school, see Whose 'science'? .
20.6a Jonathan Wells is a senior fellow for the Discovery Institute's Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture and is the author of Icons of Evolution.
Click Here for the Icons of Evolution website.
20.6b Click Here for articles on evolution by Wells, and Click Here for other articles by Wells.
20.6c Click Here for a review of Icons of Evolution by David Ussery .
20.6d Click Here for an analysis of Icons by Massimo Pigliucci.
20.6e Click Here for "Icon of Obfuscation: Jonathan Wells's book Icons of Evolution and why most of what it teaches about evolution is wrong", by Nick Matzke.
20.6f Click Here for "Icons Still Standing", a response to Matzke's critique by Casey Luskin.
20.6g Click Here for "Critics Rave Over Icons of Evolution: A Response to Published Reviews" by Jonathan Wells (17 June 2002).
20.6h Click Here for "Icons of Anti-Evolution", critiques of Wells compiled by The Icons of Anti-Evolution Project.
20.6i Click Here for a critique of Wells by Alan Gishlick for the National Center of Science Education.
20.6j Click Here for "The Flagellum Unspun: the Collapse of 'Irreducible Complexity'", by Kenneth Miller.
20.6k Click Here for "Still Spinning Just Fine: A Response to Ken Miller", by William Dembski.
20.6L Click Here for "The Fact of Evolution: Implications for Science Education", by James R. Hofmann & Bruce H. Weber. This is a critique of Chapter
3 of Wells' Icons of Evolution: "Darwin’s Tree of Life".
20.6m Click Here for "Wells and Haeckel's Embryos: A Review of Chapter 5 of Icons of Evolution" by PZ Myers.
20.6n Click Here for "Iconoclasts of Evolution: Haeckel, Behe, Wells & the Ontogeny of a Fraud", by Kurt Pickett, John Wenzel and Steven Rissing.
20.7a Click Here for the homepage of William Dembski, and Click Here for his weblog, Uncommon Descent.
20.7b Click Here for Dembski's "Teaching intelligent design as religion or science?".
20.7c Click Here for a collection of Dembski on-line essays.
20.7d Click Here for discussion of Dembski's book No Free Lunch.
20.7e Click Here for "E. Coli at the No Free Lunchroom: Bacterial Flagella and Dembski’s Case for Intelligent Design", by Howard J. Van Till.
20.7f Click Here for THE DESIGN REVOLUTION? How William Dembski Is Dodging Questions About Intelligent Design by Mark Perakh.
20.7g Click Here for THE DESIGNER-OF-THE-GAPS REVISITED A critique of William Dembski's article "Irreducible Complexity Revisited"
by Richard Wein.
20.7h Click Here for "Not a Free Lunch But a Box of Chocolates: A critique of William Dembski's book No Free Lunch", by Richard Wein.
Click Here for
"Evolution in (Brownian) space: a model for the origin of the bacterial
flagellum", by N. J. Matzke.
20.7j Click Here for "What Every Theologian Should Know about Creation, Evolution, and Design", by William Dembski.
The Bacterial Flagellum
Click Here for
Mark Isaac's discussion of claims that the bacterial flagellum could not have
20.8b Click Here "The Flagellum Unspun: The Collapse of "Irreducible Complexity", by Kenneth R. Miller.
20.8c Click Here for "Bacterial type III secretion systems are ancient and evolved by multiple horizontal-transfer events",
by Uri Gophna, Eliora Z. Ron, and Dan Graur (2003).
21.1a For some nice descriptions and images of relevant igneous rocks, take the Igneous Rocks Tour .
21.1b Click Here for The Affiliation of Christian Geologists.
21.1c Click Here for an on-line introduction to earth history.
21.1d Click Here for The Geology of the Grand Canyon.
21.1e Click Here for an analysis of the formation of the Grand Canyon by Frank Steiger.
21.1f Click Here for "Radiometric Dating, Paleosols and the Geological Column" by Joseph Meert.
21.1g Click Here for "Palaeosols" by Jonathan Clark.
21.1h Click Here for "The Geologic Column: Does it Exist?", by John Woodmorappe.
21.1j Click Here "Events in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River".
21.1k Click Here for Geologic Time, by William L. Newman.
21.2 RADIOMETRIC DATING
21.2a Click Here for a non-mathematical introduction to radiometric dating techniques by Jonathon Woolf.
21.2b Click Here for a more technical introduction that includes isochron dating by Chris Stassen.
21.2c Click Here for Isochron Dating by Chris Stassen.
21.2d Click Here for "Watching a Rock Age on an Isochron Diagram", an animation by Jon Fleming.
21.2e Click Here for "Virtual Dating", a tutorial on isochron dating methods developed by Gary Novak of CSLA.
21.2f Click Here for "Radiometric Dating and the Geological Time Scale" by Andrew MacRae.
21.2g Click Here for "The Age of the Earth" by Chris Stassen.
21.2h Click Here for "A Radiometric Dating Resource List" maintained by Tim Thompson . This list includes links to lengthy debates about radiometric dating methods and the age of the earth.
21.2i Click Here for "Radioactives Missing from the Earth", by Don Lindsay .
21.2j Click Here for Radiocarbon-Related Information Sources.
21.2k Click Here for "Radiometric Dating Does Work!", by G. Brent Dalrymple.
21.2L Click Here for 'How Old is the Earth: A Response to “Scientific” Creationism', by G. Brent Dalrymple.
22. GENERAL REFERENCES FOR YOUNG EARTH CREATIONISM
"Young Earth Creationists" generally espouse several very specific Biblically related doctrines of creation, no death before sin, a relatively young age of the earth, and a world-wide flood. Listed below are just some of the numerous young-earth creationist sites.
22 Click Here for "Who Believes What? Clearing up Confusion over Intelligent Design and Young-Earth Creationism", by Marcus R. Ross.
Here for the Institute for Creation
22.1a Click Here for a collection of ICR research papers
22.1b Duane Gish presents his position in an article entitled Is it Possible to be a Christian and an Evolutionist? .
22.2 Click Here for the Creation Research Society.
22.3 Click Here for Answers in Genesis (AIG-US President Ken Ham) Click Here for "A young Earth - it's not the issue!", by Ken Ham.
22.3a Click Here for Answers in Genesis' "Arguments we think creationists should NOT use".
Click Here for CMI's "Arguments we think creationists should NOT use".
Click Here for the Answers in Genesis "Arguments Christians should not use" series.
22.3b Click Here for "Maintaining Creationist Integrity: A response to Kent Hovind", by Carl Wieland, Ken Ham and Jonathan Sarfati.
22.3c Click Here for "15 ways to refute materialistic bigotry" by Jonathan Sarfati of Answers in Genesis.
22.3d Click Here for the Scientific American article Sarfati is responding to: "15 Answers to Creationist Nonsense".
22.3e Click Here for information about Creationist Scientists, such as Duane Gish , a list maintained by Answers in Genesis.
22.3f Click Here for the on-line Answers Research Journal.
22.3g Click Here for "ID and President Bush—the deeper issues" by Dr. Terry Mortenson.
22.3h Click Here for No Answers in Genesis!
22.3i Click here for Questioning Answers In Genesis: Exploring the wonders of geology in response to young-Earth claims..., by Jonathan Baker.
22.3j Click Here for Roger Patterson: Natural Selection vs Evolution
22.4 Click Here for Creation Science Evangelism, the homepage of Kent Hovind (Dr. Dino). His blog is Here.
22.4a Click Here for links to critiques of Kent Hovind maintained by John Stear.
22.4b Click Here for a debate between Kent Hovind and John D. Callahan.
22.4c Click Here for "Maintaining Creationist Integrity: A response to Kent Hovind", by Carl Wieland, Ken Ham and Jonathan Sarfati.
22.5 Click Here for Creation Ministries International. Click Here for CMI's "Arguments we think creationists should NOT use".
Click Here for the Answers in Genesis "Arguments Christians should not use" series.
Here for the
Geoscience Research Institute, a research
and communication institute serving the Seventh-day Adventist church.
22.7 Click Here for the Twin Cities Creation Science Association.
22.8 Click Here for A Creation Perspective developed by David Plaisted.
22.9 Click Here for the True.Origin Archive: Exposing the Myth of Evolution.
22.9a Click Here for "A Theory of Creation: A Response to the Pretense that No Creation Theory Exists"
by Timothy Wallace for The True.Origin Archive.
22.10 Click Here for The Westminster Confession of Faith, the basis for the present interpretation of the Bible by the Orthodox Presbyterian Church.
22.9a Click Here for the 2001 "Report of the Creation Study Committee" published by the Presbyterian Church in America.
22.11 Click Here for Lambert Dolphin's Resource Files.
22.12 Click Here for a lengthy bibliography of young-earth creationist articles maintained by The Revolution Against Evolution.
22.13 Click Here for a list of resources maintained by Christian Connection's Christianity and Science.
22.14 Click Here for Creation in the Crossfire, published by The South Bay Creation Science Association.
22.15 Click Here for the Creation Science Association of Orange County.
22.16 Click Here for The Kolbe Center for the Study of Creation.
22.17 Click Here for Catholic Apologetics International.
22.18 Click Here for the Creation Biology Society, formerly BSG: A Creation Biology Study Group
22.19 Click Here for The Center for Origins Research at Bryan College
22.20 Click Here for the Young Earth Creation Club.
22.21 Click Here for "The non-moving Earth & anti-evolution web page of The Fair Education Foundation, Inc"
22.22 Click Here for Logos Research Associates.
22.23 Click Here for The New Creationism: Building Scientific Theories on a Biblical Foundation, by Paul Garner.
D. Russell Humphreys
23.1a Click Here for biographical information and some links.
23.1b Click Here for an interview with Russell Humphreys: "Creation in the Physics Lab"
23.1c Click Here for Humphreys' article "Evidence for a Young World".
23.1d Click Here for Humphreys' article "The Earth's Magnetic Field is Young"
23.1e Click Here for Humphreys' article "The Creation of Planetary Magnetic Fields".
23.1f Click Here for a response to Humphreys and Thomas Barnes by Tim Thompson .
23.1g Click Here for a response to Humphreys by David E. Thomas.
23.1h Click Here for a discussion of the geomagnetic field by Gary Glatzmaier.
23.1i Click Here for further discussion of geomagnetic reversals.
23.1j Click Here for another short discussion of geomagnetic reversals.
23.1k Humphreys is also the author of Starlight and Time .
Click Here for a critique of this book by Samuel Conner and Hugh Ross of Reasons to Believe
23.lL Click Here for a reply by Humphreys.
23.lm Click Here for "Russell Humphreys answers Various Critics".
23.1n Click Here for a May 21, 2001 interview of Humphreys.
23.1O Click Here for "Nuclear Decay: Evidence for a Young World by Humphreys.
23.1p Click here for comments on the above Humphreys article by David Thomas.
23.2 Keith Wanser
23.2a Click Here for a statement by Keith Wanser originally published in In Six Days.
23.2b Click Here for replies by Keith Wanser to a set of questions posed by students in LS487 during Fall 1999.
23.3 Andrew Snelling
23.3a Click Here for biographical information and links to many Snelling publications.
23.3b Click Here for "Excess Argon: the Achilles Heel of Potasium-Argon and Argon-Argon Dating of Volcanic Rocks"
23.3c Click Here for Impact #309: "Potassium-Argon and Argon-Argon Dating of Crustal Rocks and the Problem of Excess Argon" (Mar. 1999).
23.3d Click Here for "The Cause of Anomalous Potassium-Argon "Ages" for Recent Andesite Flows at Mt. Ngauruhoe, New Zealand, and the
Implications for Potassium-Argon "Dating"(1998).
23.3e Click Here for "Will the Real Dr Snelling Please Stand Up?", by Alex Ritchie.
23.4 Steven A.
23.4a Click Here for biography and a link to "Mt St Helens 'dating'"
23.4b Click Here for "Excess Argon within Mineral Concentrates from the New Dacite Lava Dome at Mount St. Helens Volcano" (1996).
23.4c Click Here for "Grand Canyon Lava Flows: A Survey of Isotope Dating Methods" by Steven Austin.
23.4d Click Here for "Excessively Old 'Ages' for Grand Canyon Lava Flows" by Steven Austin.
23.4e Click Here for "A Criticism of the ICR's Grand Canyon Dating Project" by Chris Stassen.
23.4f Click Here for "K-Ar ages of Pleistocene Lava Dams in the Grand Canyon in Arizona" by Dalrymple and Hamblin.
23.4h Click Here for "The Misguided Erosion Argument" by Glenn Morton.
23.4i Click Here for "Salty Seas: Evidence for a Young Earth", by Jonathan Sarfati. This is based on a 1990 article by Austin and Humphreys.
23.5 Don DeYoung
23.5a Click Here for "Is the Moon Really Old?"
23.5b Click Here for a response by Tim Thompson: "The Recession of the Moon and the Age of the Earth-Moon System".
23.5c Click Here for a response to Thompson by Malcolm Bowden; "The Moon is Still Young".
23.6 Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth (RATE)
23.6a In July 1997, a group of young earth creationist scientists affiliated with The Institute for Creation Research started a research collaboration called "Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth" (RATE). Progress reports have been published as Impact 290 , Impact 301 , and Impact 314 . Click Here for information on their book, Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth, published in 2000 by the Institute for Creation Research and the Creation Research Society . Click Here for a December 2000 update.
23.6b Click Here for a critique of RATE by geologist Joseph Meert . For other articles by Meert, Click Here .
23.6c Click Here for a discussion of radiogenic helium in zircons.
23.6d Click Here for "Young-Earth Creationist Helium Diffusion 'Dates': Misconceptions Based on Bad Assumptions and Questionable Data", by Kevin Henke.
23.6e Click Here for articles on RATE provided by the American Scientific Affiliation.
Radiometric Dating and Lava Flows
23.7a Click Here For a discussion of the 1801 eruption of the Hualalai volcano in Hawaii that has been cited in debates about the validity of
potassium/argon dating, "Fresh Lava Dated as 22 Million Years Old", by Don Lindsay .
23.7b Click Here for "200 Year Old Lava Dated 2.96 Billion Years Old?" by Mike Hopkins.
23.7c Click Here for additional discussion by Mark Isaak.
23.7d Click Here for more discussion by Kevin Henke.
Here for an excerpt from The Annals of the World (1658)
in which Bishop James Ussher advocates the date
of creation at 23 October 4004
23.9 Christian Objections to
Young Earth Creationism
23.9a Click Here for "Radiometric Dating: A Christian Perspective by Roger C. Wiens .
23.9c Click Here for a critique of young-earth arguments by a Christian geologist, Lorence Collins.
23.9d Click Here for "Is There Really Scientific Evidence for a Young Earth?", by Matthew Tiscareno .
23.9e Click Here for "A Brief Intro to the Creation-date 'Debate'" by Darrick Dean.
23.9f Click Here for "Young Earth Creationism", presented by Evidence for God from Science.
23.9h Click Here for Answers in Creation: Bringing the Bible and Science Together Without Conflict.
23.9i Click Here for Rocket Science Ministries.
23.9j Click here for Questioning Answers In Genesis: Exploring the wonders of geology in response to young-Earth claims..., by Jonathan Baker.
23.9k Click Here for "PCA Geologists on the Antiquity of the Earth" and Click Here for a response by John Reed for Answers in Genesis.
23.10 John Woodmorappe
23.10a Click Here for "Billion-fold Acceleration old Radioactivity Demonstrated in Laboratory" by John Woodmorappe.
23.10b Click Here for commentary on Woodmorappe: "Modifications of Nuclear Beta Decay Rates" by David Ewan Kahana.
23.10c Click Here for "Glenn R. Morton's Misuse of Woodmorappe's, List of Discrepant Isotopic Dates", by John Woodmorappe.
23.10e Click Here for "How Can Woodmorappe Sell Us a Bill of Goods if He Doesn't Know the Costs?", by Kevin Henke.
23.10f Click Here for other responses to Woodmorappe by Kevin Henke.
23.10g Click Here for "Geochronology kata John Woodmorappe", by Steven H. Schimmrich.
23.11 Guy Berthault
23.11a Click Here for Guy Berthault's description of his stratigraphy experiments.
23.11b Click Here for "EXPERIMENTS IN STRATIFICATION", October 2000 by Guy Berthault.
23.11c Click Here for "Sedimentation Experiments: Nature Finally Catches Up!", by Andrew Snelling.
23.11d Click Here for "Berthault's 'Stratigraphy': Rediscovering What Geologists Already Know and Strawperson Misrepresentations
of Modern Applications of Steno's Principles" by Kevin Henke.
23.11e Click Here for a response from Berthault.
23.11f Click Here for "Some Questions for Dr. Berthault" by Kevin Henke.
23.11g Click Here for "Other Views: Guy Berthault", presented by the Institute for Biblical & Scientific Studies.
23.11h Click Here for "The Curious Case of the One-Man Band: The work of Guy Berthault: Revolutionary Geology or Extravagant Hubris?" by Alec MacAndrew.
23.12 Click Here or for "Evidence for a Young Earth from the Ocean and Atmosphere", by Larry Vardiman, Oct.8, 2005.
23.13 Click Here for Dealing with Creationism in Astronomy by W.T. Bridgman.
24. COEXISTENCE OF HUMANS AND DINOSAURS
24.1 Some young-earth
creationists argue that there is evidence that dinosaurs and humans coexisted.
See, for example, The Footprints of Dragons by Lourella Rouster.
24.2 Paluxy River Fossil Footprints
24.2a For an account of Carl Baugh's excavation of Paluxy River fossils as supported by the Creation Evidence Museum, Click Here and then click on "Excavations".
24.2b Click Here for a lengthy collection of references to the the Paluxy Dinosaur "Man Track" controversy generated by alleged fossils of human and dinosaur footprints.
24.2c Click Here for a history of the Paluxy fossil controversy by Arthur Chadwick.
24.2d Click Here for another discussion of Carl Baugh's work by Wayne Spencer.
24.2e Click Here for Glen Kuban's discussion of the famous "Burdick Print".
24.2f Some of the Paluxy fossils together with the "Burdick Print" were highlighted as part of a February 25, 1996 NBC broadcast called The Mysterious Origins of Man, produced by BC Video.
Click Here for links to some responses to that broadcast, and Click Here for a review by Glen Kuban.
24.2g Click Here for a discussion of Carl Baugh originally maintained by Answers in Genesis.
24.2h Click Here for "The Paluxy River Mystery" by John Morris of the Institute for Creation Research.
24.2i Click Here for a response to John Morris by Glen Kuban.
24.2j Click Here for Glen Kuban's analysis of the Paluxy tracks.
24.2k Click Here for "Stones and Bones" , a blog where Gary Hurd comments on Paluxy and other tracks.
25.1 Some General Young Earth Creationist Resources on a Global Flood
Dolphin: On the Great Flood
25.1b John D. Morris: The Global Flood of Noah's Day
Click Here for "Flood Models: the need for an integrated approach" by Andy
McIntosh, Tom Edmondson and Steven Taylor,
for Answers in Genesis.
25.1d Click Here for "A Scientific Paradigm for the Genesis Flood", by Ted Noel and Ken Noel for The Bible Only.
25.1e Click Here for "How did Noah Gather the Animals?", by John Morris.
25.1f Click here for "Startling evidence for Noah’s Flood: Footprints and sand ‘dunes’ in a Grand Canyon sandstone!" by Snelling and Austin (1992).
Click Here for commentary on wind-blown and subaqueous dunes.
Click Here for commentary on the footprints discussed by Snelling and Austin.
Click Here for more commentary from Answers in Creation.
25.1g Click Here for "Doesn’t the Order of Fossils in the Rock Record Favor Long Ages?" by Dr. Andrew A. Snelling for Answers in Genesis. (September 9, 2010)
25.1h Click Here for "The top five challenges for creationist geology" by Paul Garner.
25.2 JOHN BAUMGARDNER
John Baumgardner is a young earth creationist who has developed computer models to argue that the Biblical flood can be understood in terms of rapid tectonic activity.
25.2a Click Here for the online home of Dr. John Baumgardner's work related to the Genesis flood and Click Here for his Logos Research page.
25.2b Click Here for his 1994 paper entitled "Runaway Subduction as the Driving Mechanism for the Genesis Flood".
25.2d Interview with plate tectonics expert Dr. John Baumgardner
25.2e For another interview, click Scientists Who Believe
25.2f Click Here for a response from the National Center for Science Education.
25.2g Click Here for a response from Darkness to Light Ministries.
25.2h Click Here for "Depths of the Oceans: Incompatible with A Global Flood Model", by Joseph Meert.
25.2i Click Here for an Answers in Genesis "Forum on catastrophic plate tectonics".
25.2j Click Here for "Ancient Molecules and Modern Myths", by Gary Hurd.
25.2k Click Here for "A Catastrophic Breakup: A Scientific Look at Catastrophic Plate Tectonics" by Greg Neyman.
Click Here for "Institute for Creation Research 'Racing' Plate Tectonics Nonsense" by Greg Neyman.
25.2L Click Here for Dismissing "catastrophic plate tectonics", by Gary Hurd.
25.3 John Woodmorappe
25.3a John Woodmorappe has written extensively on the feasibility of a literal reading of the Genesis account of Noah's ark.
25.3b Click Here for a summary of Woodmorappe's arguments by Jason Browning.
25.3c Woodmorappe's 1993 book, Studies in Flood Geology , initiated a lengthy debate with Steven Schimmrich .
25.3d Woodmorappe's 1996 book is Noah's Ark: A Feasibility Study .
25.3e Click Here for an analysis of some of Woodmorrappe's calculations.
25.3f For a bibliography of other Woodmorappe articles look him up by Clicking Here .
25.4 Larry Vardiman
25.4a Click Here for "Out of Whose Womb Came the Ice?".
25.4b Click Here for "Cooling of the Ocean After the Flood".
Northrup (advocate of multiple floods)
25.5a Click Here for a diagram of Northrup's "Five Biblical Catastrophe Harmonizational Model"
25.5b Click Here for Northrup's "Guidelines for Understanding the Witness in the Record of the Rocks".
25.5c Click Here for Northrup's "The Geological Foundation below the Noahic Flood Deposits"
25.5d Click Here for links to Northrup's other essays on geology and Genesis.
25.5e Click Here for a critique of Northrup by geologist Joseph Meert .
25.6 Objections to a Global Flood
25.6a Click Here for The Flood Page: Articles on Noah's Flood, by Glenn Morton .
25.6b Click Here for "Problems with a Global Flood" by Mark Isaak .
25.6h Click Here for "Isotopic Sorting and the Noah's Flood Model", by Patrick Spears.
25.6L Click Here for "More Nonsense on 'TRUE.ORIGINS': Jonathan Sarfati's Support Of Flood Geology", by Kevin Henke.
25.6m Click Here for "Creationist 'Flood Geology' Versus Common Sense Or Reasons why 'Flood Geology' was abandoned in the mid-1800s by
Christian men of science". Quotations from modern day scientists (and others) compiled by Edward T. Babinski.
25.6O Click Here for "What Would We Expect To Find if the World had Flooded?" by Ken Harding.
25.6p Click Here for Answers in Creation.
25.6q Click Here for Paul H. Seely, , 2003, "The GISP2 Ice Core: Ultimate Proof that Noah's Flood Was Not Global". Perspectives on Science and
Chrisitian Faith. vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 252-260.
25.6r Click Here for "The Proof is in the Poop!", by Greg Neyman for Answers in Creation.
25.6s Click Here for Joseph Meert on the "Austin Chalk".
25.7 William Ryan and Walter Pitman
Recent research by William Ryan and Walter Pitman has led some to think that the flood described in Genesis may have been a local flooding of the Black Sea. Their book is called Noah's Flood: The New Scientific Discoveries About the Event That Changed History.
25.7a Click here for a review in the Biblical Archaeology Review.
25.7b Click here for a review in the Christian Science Monitor and other links.
25.7c Click Here for Robert Ballard's discovery of human habitation beneath the Black Sea.
25.7d Click Here for photographs of the Ballard discoveries.
25.7e Click Here for a young-earth response to Ballard's discovery by Tas Walker of Answers in Genesis.
25.7f Click Here for an October 2000 Kansas City Star article on Ballard's hypothesis.
25.7h Click Here for discussion of Noah's flood by B. A. Robinson of the Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance.
Here for "Flood Stories from Around the World", by
26.1 See the links and articles compiled by Dave Armstrong .
Click Here for "Answers in
Creation: "Bringing the Bible and Science Together Without Conflict".
26.3 Click Here for Rocket Science Ministries.
26.4 Click Here for Christian Faith and Reason.
26.5 Click Here for Adnan Oktar (Harun Yahya).
26.6 Click Here for Harun Yahya, An Invitation to the Truth.
27. THEISTIC EVOLUTION
27.0 Click Here for Perspectives on Theistic Evolution.27.1 CATHOLICISM
Pope Benedict XVI and Cardinal
27.1k Click Here for "Communion and Stewardship: Human Persons Created in the Image of God".
27.1ka Click Here for "Finding Design in Nature" by Cardinal Christoph Schönborn
27.1kb Click Here for a letter to Pope Benedict XVI in response to Cardinal Schönborn's New York Times article.
27.1kc Click Here for "Creation and Evolution: to the Debate as it Stands", by Cardinal Christoph Schönborn (2 October, 2005).
27.1kd Click Here for a critique by Stephen M. Barr., October, 2005.
27.1ke Click Here for 'The Designs of Science", by Cardinal Christoph Schönborn, January, 2006.
27.1kf Click Here for a talk by Vatican Observatory director, Father George V. Coyne, SJ, "Science Does Not Need God. Or Does It? A Catholic
Scientist Looks at Evolution", 31 January, 2006.
27.1La Click Here for John Haught's homepage.
27.1Lb Click Here for a video-taped interview.
27.1m Kenneth Miller: Kenneth R. Miller is a Catholic cell biologist and textbook author who teaches at Brown University.
27.1ma Click Here for Miller's article: Life's Grand Design
27.1mb Click Here for Miller's "Thoughts of an 'Ardent Theist,'or Why Jerry Coyne is Wrong".
27.2a Howard J. Van Till: Howard J. Van Till argues for theistic evolution from a tradition he traces to Saint Basil and Saint Augustine .
27.2 Other Theistic Evolutionists
Gray is a biochemist and theistic evolutionist. Go to his
Page for reviews of Behe and Johnson and documents pertaining to Gray's
trial by the Harvest Orthodox Presbyterian Church.
27.2ba Click Here for "On the Animal Ancestry of Adam's Body An Ecclesiastical Appeal in the Case of the Session of Harvest OPC vs. Dr. Terry M. Gray",
and Click Here for other trial documents pertaining to Terry Gray.
27.2bb Click Here for "Complexity--Yes! Irreducible--Maybe! Unexplainable--No! A Creationist Criticism of Irreducible Complexity", by Terry Gray.
Click Here for descriptions of Peacock's books, his career, and his reception of the 2001 Templeton Prize for Progress in Religion.
27.2d Click Here for "Theological Implications of an Evolving Creation", by geologist Keith Miller
Click Here for information on a lecture by Keith Miller at CSUF on March 11, 2004: "An Evolving Creation: Not an Oxymoron"
27.2e Click Here for comments by Bob Bakker, a famous dinosaur fossil hunter and Pentacostal preacher.
27.2f Denis Lamoureux.
Click Here for his homepage.
27.2fa Click Here for "Evolutionary Creation" by Lamoureux.
27.2fb Click Here for "The Phillip E. Johnson Phenomenon: Are Evangelicals Inheriting theWind?".
27.2fc Click Here for "A Black Box or a Black Hole? A Response to Michael Behe".
27.2fd Click Here for "Beyond the Evolution vs. Creation Debate", by Denis Lamoureux.
27.2ga Click Here for his homepage as Director of the National Human Genome Research Institute.
27.2gb Click Here for the transcript of an interview by Bob Abernethy.
27.2gc Click Here for "The Language of God: A Believer Looks at the Human Genome".
27.2gd Click Here for an April 17, 2008 interview.
27.2ge Click Here for the Biologos Foundation, founded by Francis Collins.
Click Here for "Nothing in
Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution", by Theodosius
27.2i Click Here for An Evangelical Dialogue on Evolution: Sharing one Evangelical's perspective on evolution and its implications for the Christian Faith.
27.2j Click Here for "Creation, Evolution, and Christian Laypeople" by Tim Keller.
27.2k Click Here for "Evangelicals, Creation, and Scripture: an Overview", by Mark Noll.
27.2L Click Here for "Barriers to Accepting the Possibility of Creation by Means of an Evolutionary Process", by Bruce Waltke.
27.3 Other Discussions of Theistic Evolution
27.3a In 1992
Johnson debated philosopher Michael Ruse over the following
issue: "Can Darwinism be Reconciled with any Meaningful form of Theistic
Johnson: NO Ruse: YES
Here for articles on theistic evolution posted by the American
27.3c For a critique of theistic evolution by William Dembski from the point of view of the Discovery Institute intelligent design movement, see
What Every Theologian Should Know about Creation, Evolution, and Design .
27.3d Click Here for Christianity and Evolution by Carl Drews.
27.3e Click Here for Perspectives on Theistic Evolution by Phillip Jones
27.3f Click Here for "An Open Letter Concerning Religion and Science", distributed by the "Clergy Letter Project".
Click Here for a response from Rev. Mark H. Creech, executive director of the Christian Action League of North Carolina, Inc.
27.3g Click Here for "A Catechism of Creation: An Episcopal Understanding", prepared for study in congregations by The Committee on Science,
Technology and Faith.
27.3h Click Here for the Nebraska Religious Coalition for Science Education (NRCSE).
28.1 Click Here for "Darwin's Truth, Jefferson's Vision: Sociobiology and the Politics of Human Nature" by Melvin Konner.
28.2 Click Here for The Human Behavior and Evolution Society.
28.3 Click Here for "Of Vice and Men: The Fairy Tales of Evolutionary Psychology" by Jerry Coyne; a review of A Natural History of Rape: Biological
Bases of Sexual Coercion by Randy Thornhill and Craig Palmer.
28.4 Click Here for a review of David Loye's book Darwin's Lost Theory of Love; reviewed by Jane Lampman in The Christian Science Monitor.
28.5 Click Here for Darwinism and Conservatism: Friends or Foes?
Here for "The Second Law of Thermodynamics", by Frank
29.2 Click Here for "The Second Law of Thermodynamics in the Context of Christian Faith", by Allan H. Harvey.
29.3 Click Here for "The Second Law of Thermodynamics, Evolution, and Probability", by Frank Steiger of Talkorigins.
29.4 Click Here for "Attributing False Attributes to Thermodynamics", by Frank Steiger.
29.5 Click Here for "Thermodynamics vs. Evolutionism", by Timothy Wallace of TrueOrigin.(includes a reply to Steiger)
29.6 Click Here for "The Second Law of Thermodynamics and Evolution", by Frank Lambert.
29.7 Click Here for "Life as a Manisfestation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics" by Eric Schneider and James J. Kay.
29.8 Click Here for "Ecosystems as Self-organizing Holarchic Open Systems : Narratives and the Second Law of Thermodynamics" by James J. Kay.
29.9 Click Here for "Thermodynamic Cycles, Developmental Systems, and Emergence" by Bruce Weber and Terrance Deacon.
30. Human Evolution
Here for the WEBBOOK: How Humans Evolved.
30.1a Click Here for "Fossil Hominids: The Evidence for Human Evolution" by Jim Foley.
30.2 Chromosome Evidence
30.2a Click Here for "Comparison of the Human and Great Ape Chromosomes as Evidence for Common Ancestory", by Robert Williams.
30.2b Click Here for "An Inversion Between Man and Chimpanzee Chromosomes", by Don Lindsay .
30.2c Click Here for "A Translocation Between Man and Chimpanzee Chromosomes, by Don Lindsay .
30.2d Click Here for "Bite makes way for brain: A single mutation may have caused gross anatomical changes that spurred human evolution",
by Brendan A Maher.
30.2e Click Here for Larry Flammer's resources on Chromosome Fusion.
30.2f Click Here for "A Tale of Two Chromosomes" by Jean K. Lightner from Answers in Genesis.
30.2g Click Here for "The Mistakes that Argue for Evolution" by Kenneth Chang.
30.2h Click Here for "Luskin's ludicrous genetics", by P.Z. Myers.
30.3 Technical Articles on Human Evolution
30.3a Click Here for "Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of keratinocyte growth factor gene amplification and dispersion in evolution of great apes and humans"
by D. B. Zimonjic et al.
30.3b Click Here for "Hominids and Hybrids: The Place of Neanderthals in Human Evolution", by Ian Tattersall and Jeffrey H. Schwartz.
30.3c Click Here for "Mitochondrial DNA Sequences in Ancient Australians: Implications for modern human origins" by Alan Thorne et al.
30.3d Click Here for "Mitochondrial Genome Variation and the Origin of Modern Humans" by Max Ingman et al.
30.3e Click Here for a March 2001 report of the discovery of Kenyanthropus platyops: "New hominin genus from eastern Africa shows diverse middle
Pliocene lineages" by Meave G. Leakey, et al.
30.3f Click Here for "Constructing primate phylogenies from ancient retrovirus sequences", by Welkin E. Johnson and John M. Coffin.
30.3g Click Here for "Relaxed selective pressure on an essential component of pheromone transduction in primate evolution" by
Non-technical Articles on Human Evolution
30.4 Click Here for discussion of the Piltdown Man hoax by Richard Harter.
30.5 Click Here for the Human Evolution Education Network.
30.6 Click Here for a report on recent human fossil discoveries in Dmansisi, Georgia.
30.7 Click Here for "Leakey Ancestors", a museum of human ancestors maintained by Meave Leakey.
30.8 Click Here for "Hominid Evolution" by Stephen Broker of the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute.
30.9 Click Here for Becoming Human
30.10 Click Here for "Was Lucy An Ape-man?" by John Morris of The Institute for Creation Research.
30.11 Click Here for "Lucy's Knee Joint" by Jim Lippard on the Talk.Origins Archive.
30.12 Click Here for "Neanderthals and Modern Humans: A Regional Guide".
30.13 Click Here for a report on recent discoveries in Australia: "Is Out of Africa Going Out the Door?"
30.14 Click Here for "Human Evolution".
30.15 Click Here for Anthropology in the News.
30.16 Click Here for "The Genetic Archaeology of Race" by Steve Olson from The Atlantic Monthly April 2001.
[Subtitle: DNA analysis is explaining where "racial difference" comes from—and what it does and doesn't mean. The study of human genetic variation has become the
most contentious area in modern science.]
30.16a Click Here for "Gene Map Presents Race Concerns", by Kristen Philipkoski.
30.17 Click Here for Becoming Human, developed by the Institute of Human Origins.
30.18 Click Here for The Smithsonian Institution Human Origins Program: In Search of What Makes Us Human.
30.19 Click Here for a talkorigins comparison of hominid skulls.
30.20 Click Here for "Evolution's Youth Movement: Fossil children may harbor clues to humanity's origins", by Bruce Bower.
30.21 Click Here for discussion of Sarfati's claim that "Human lysozyme is closer to chicken lysozyme than to that of any other mammal", Refuting
Evolution, p. 83.
30.22 Click Here for "The Bullfrog Affair", a discussion of several protein controversies, including lysozyme.
30.23 Click Here for discussion of Kent Hovind's claim that human cytochrome c is closest to that of a sunflower.
30.24 Click Here for "Top Ten Missing Links".
30.25 Click Here for "The Chimpanzee Genome and the Problem of Biological Similarity" by Todd Charles Wood (the human/chimp problem for baraminology).
30.26 Click Here for "Meet Lucy".
30.27 Click Here for "Were Australopithecines Ape–Human Intermediates or Just Apes? A Test of Both Hypotheses Using the 'Lucy' Skeleton", by Phil Senter.
31.a Click Here for "A New Kind of Ancestor: Ardipithecus Unveiled" by Ann Gibbons.
32. EVOLUTION AND CREATION IN THE POPULAR PRESS
Here for "Double-Dealing in Darwin: Are intellectuals allowing
dogma in science but not in religion?" by Michael Ruse.
32.2 Click Here for "Government shouldn't choose sides in evolution debate".
32.3 Click Here for "Scientific proof, not faith, determines what is truthful".
33 Islam and Evolution
Click Here for
Darwin and Evolution in the Muslim World, an October 2009 conference at
33.2 Click Here for Harun Yahya, An Invitation to the Truth.
33.3 Click Here for autobiographical data on Adnan Oktar.
33.4 Click Here for articles posted by Harun Yahya, An Invitation to the Truth.
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